Thursday, 31 August 2017

Engineering Journal: August Issue 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-8, August 2017 with AD Publications

Performance Analysis of Regular and Irregular Structure Under Seismic Effect for RCC and Steel Composite Column Using Response Spectrum

AbstractComposite construction is a modern method of construction presently holds a wide area of interest. This paper includes performance analysis of regular and irregular structure under seismic effect for RCC and Composite column. Modeling and analysis of structure is done by using ETABS software. Since composite construction is combination of steel section and concrete, which shows the properties of both steel and concrete. The compression efficiency of concrete and high ductile properties of steel together contributes to the structure for its perfect durability.

KeywordsComposite Column, ETABS.

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Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbon resistant plasticized PVC hoses

Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of two types of aliphatic hydrocarbons resistant soft PVC hoses. A number of tests were performed to determine the internal structures and the difference between the hoses. First tests concerned with pentane resistance, the plasticizer and extender's effects on variations in the structure. The solubility of gas in plasticizer and the changing of morphology determined the applicability. The second analysis of FTIR results can show the internal structure’s composition, what the difference is between the two formulations. The weight changes of the hoses can shows the material’s gas resistance. The gas diffusion's driving force was the gas evaporation. The gas diffusion can be determined from the decrease of the quantity of the hydrocarbons. The internal structure was also observed by DMA. The measurement was made after a pentane soak of simple samples. The morphology, the material's density, mechanical properties and aliphatic hydrocarbon resistance of samples were determined. After all the measurements, the difference between the products was noticeable during even visual inspection of the samples as well.

Keywords: PVC hose, FTIR, DMA, gas diffusion, aliphatic hydrocarbon resistant.

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Characterization of Layered GaSe Crystals Intercalated with RbNO3 Ferroelectric Salt and their Application for Electric Capacitors

Abstract XRD, SEM, EDX investigations as well as wide temperature (T = 5–300 K) photoluminescence measurements of GaSe single crystals intercalated from the melt of RbNO3 ferroelectric salt at various temperatures and exposure times are performed in this work. Intercalation by this method results in GaSe matrix fragmentation by separate polycrystals 1 mm in size which consist of bulk GaSe segments (with sizes up to 50.0 mkm) and veins of RbNO3 ferroelectric salt with thickness reaching 2–3 mkm. Within the GaSe segments are inclusions of nano-sized phases consisting of RbNO3 salt whose diameter does not exceed 120 nm. It has been shown that the creation of GaSe<RbNO3> hybrid structure has an insignificant influence on the optical properties of GaSe matrix, since in the photoluminescence spectra of GaSe<RbNO3> at T = 300 K one can observe emission of free excitons which is typical for GaSe single crystals. The electrical investigations performed indicate that the intercalated GaSe<RbNO3> or GaSe<KNO3> are capable of accumulating electric energy, and prototypes of supercapacitors based on them possess: specific long-time energy 105 kJ/kg and resource of cycles > 106.

Keywords Layered crystal, GaSe, intercalation, ferroelectric, supercapacitors.

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On the Method of Construction of the Dependence of the Heat Extension Coefficient on Temperature in Heat-resistant Alloys

Abstract In this paper, we consider methods and methods for studying rods from high-temperature alloys, in particular, the study of the dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion on temperature. According to the tasks of the paper, methods are developed for taking into account the presence of local surface heat exchanges, temperatures, and internal point heat sources in the study of rods made of high-temperature alloys. The scientific significance of the project is due to the fact that the results of the development can be used for in-depth study of the nonlinear thermal and physical state of the structural rod elements that work in the presence of heterogeneous types of heat sources. Such designs include gas-generating, nuclear, thermal and hydrogen power plants, as well as jet engines and internal combustion engines. In order to ensure continuous reliable operation of these facilities, the authors developed fundamental methods that allow to adequately simulate non-linear thermophysical processes in the rod bearing elements of installations taking into account simultaneous presence of local thermal insulation, heat exchange, temperatures, and internal point heat sources. The laws of the distribution of temperature, elastic, temperature and thermoelastic components of strains and stresses, as well as displacement, are obtained. This became the basis for the creation in the future of a program in the programming language PYTHON, with the help of which it is possible to construct the corresponding fields of temperature distribution, all the components of deformation, stress and displacement in the form of graphs.

Keywords Coefficient of thermal expansion, High-temperature alloy, steady-state thermophysical process, Thermal conductivity.

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Characteristics of Settlement Consolidation and Influencing Factors Analysis of Dredger Fill of Clay Soil Mixing Sand

Abstract Sedimentation column that the size of100×500mm is used to study the relationship between the self weight settlement of cohesive soil and the initial sand-mud ratio and initial water content of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand. Test results show that:(1) the consolidation time of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand is mainly related to the size of the settlement column, compared with the initial water content, the influence of sand-mud ratio is not significant. The larger the size of the settlement column, the longer time of gravity consolidation will be completed, and the higher initial water content, the shorter time of consolidation. (2) The settlement curve of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand is in accordance with the relation formula .In the formula, is the steady settlement. The stability time of settlement consolidation can be deduced by this formula. Under the condition of the same water content, the consolidation settlement of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand increases linearly with the sand-mud ratio, but the amplitude of the increase is not large; (3) the logarithmic curve of consolidation settlement is basically divided into three stages: The straight line segment, the upper concave line segment and the lower concave line segment. At first, the slope of the linear section increases gradually with the increase of the initial water content; The upper concave curve gradually decreases with the increase of water content, and when the initial water content reaches a certain value, the concave curve becomes a straight line; The lower concave curve section gradually changes to the curve type, then the slope of the settlement curve decreases and finally tends to the horizontal.

Keywords clay soil mixing sand; self weight consolidation settlement; initial water content; initial sand-mud ratio.

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Parametric Analysis of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower under Seismic Loads, Wind Loads and Dead Load through Staad. Pro

Abstract Hyperbolic cooling towers are large, thin shell reinforced concrete structures which contribute to environmental protection and to power generation efficiency and reliability. The safety of hyperbolic cooling towers is important to the continuous operation of a power plant. It is observed from the analysis that maximum displacement, support reactions, support moments, stresses and bending moments in plates due to seismic loading, wind loading and dead load i.e. its self weight on a hyperbolic cooling tower is continuous function of geometry (top diameter, throat diameter and height). Earthquake zone plays the important role in analysis. So from this work it can be observed that 300 mm thickness, throat diameter 60m and height 250m is much efficient among all but if height is mandatory to extent than height should not be more than 159m (height taken from actual work) and 170 m height is critical.

Keywords Cooling tower, node displacement, support reactions, plate stresses.

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Sub-pixel Distance Measurement Algorithm Based on Improved SURF

Abstract A sub-pixel-level measurement algorithm based on improved SURF is proposed. Firstly, the sobel operator is used to extract the edge of the image quickly in order to highlight the potential feature point, and reduce the detected range of the SURF algorithm. Then use the SURF algorithm to obtain the sub-pixel level coordinates of the matching feature points in the two images. After the match, the affine transformation remove the wrong match point. Finally, the moving distance is calculated by using the sub-pixel-level coordinates of the matching points. The experimental results show that the error of the moving distance is less than 3 %, according to the feature points of the two images. And if the original image resolution is 2560 * 1440, the required running time is only 0.3 to 0.4 seconds.

Keywords Distance Measurement, SURF, Sub-pixel, Sobel.

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Trace Analysis of Carbazole in Commercial Diesel by using Adsorption on Activated Biochar from Rice Husk Pyrolysis

Abstract The valorization of rice husk biochar obtained by pyrolysis was studied by production high quality activated carbon. Activated carbon (AC) chemically treated by K2CO3, was used as sorbent phase in bar adsorptive microextraction followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer analysis (BAµE/GC×GC-qMS) for trace analysis of carbazole in commercial diesel. The prepared AC was characterized by N2 adsorption, SEM-EDS and pHPZC. Assays of nitrogen adsorption isotherm demonstrated that the AC presented microporosity and the Density Functional Theory Calculation was applied to obtain information concerning the micropore size distribution. The BET surface area and total pore volume were 1850 m2g-1and 0.83 cm3g-1, respectively. AC from rice huskpyrolysis (RH) showed an acceptable adsorption capacity for Carbazole in diesel matrices allowed us to obtain average recoveries of 91.0 % and convenient analytical parameters. From the data obtained, the proposed methodology proved to be a suitable sorption-based static microextraction alternative for monitoring trace levels of carbazole in commercial diesel.

Keywords Rice husk pyrolysis, Activated carbon, Chemical activation, Bar adsorptive microextraction, BAµE/GC×GC-qMS, Nitrogen compounds, Diesel.

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Research on the Unsteady Discharge Flow of Dry Chemical Powder Tank

Abstract In this study, we investigated the activation of powders by the supply of N2 gas in the dry chemical powder tanks. In this study, we investigated the effect of N2 gas on the activation of dry chemical powder (KHCO3) in Dry chemical Powder Tank, We studied how dry chemical powder (KHCO3) is activated according to the number of nozzles in the tank. 170 kg, and 3000 kg models, the number of nozzles was 4, 8. We gave the points to confirm the activation of the powder. This study describes the optimal conditions for activation depending on the type of dry chemical powder tank and the number of nozzles.

Keywords Powder activation, Discharge Flow, Dry Chemical Powder Tank, nitrogen gas.

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Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Unsteady Nanofluids in a Small Pipe with Pulse Pressure

Abstract In the present paper, developing turbulence forced convection flows were numerically investigated by using water-Al2O3 nano-fluid through a circular compact pipe which has 4.5mm diameter. Each model has a steady state and uniform heat flux (UHF) at the wall. The whole numerical experiments were processed under the RPM 100 to 500 and the nano-fluid models were made by the Alumina volume fraction. Single-phase fluid models were defined through nano-fluid physical and thermal properties calculations, Two-phase models (mixture granular model) were processed in 100nm diameter. The results show that comparison of nusselt number and heat transfer rate are improved as the Al2O3 volume fraction increased. All of the numerical flow simulations are processed by the FLUENT. The results show an increase from volume fraction concentration and an increase in heat transfer coefficient with increasing RPM.

Keywords nanofluid, mixture, alumina, nusselt number, heat transfer coefficient, Pulsation pressure.

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Analysis of laminar nanofluid forced convection heat transport through the CFD

AbstractIn the present paper, developing laminar forced convection flows were numerically investigated by using water-Al2O3 nano-fluid through a circular compact pipe which has 4.5mm diameter. Each model has a steady state and uniform heat flux (UHF) at the wall. The whole numerical experiments were processed under the Re = 1050 and the nano-fluid models were made by the Alumina volume fraction. Single-phase fluid models were defined through nano-fluid physical and thermal properties calculations, Two-phase model (mixture granular model) were processed in 100nm diameter. The results show that Nusselt number and heat transfer rate are improved as the Al2O3 volume fraction increased. All of the numerical flow simulations are processed by the FLUENT. The results show the increment of thermal transfer from the volume fraction concentration.

KeywordsNanofluid, Alumina, Laminar flow, Mixture, Nusselt number, Heat transfer coefficient, Homogeneous flow.

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Experimental-laboratory study of the flow around mussel shocks

Abstract The productivity in an organized mussel culture area is closely related to the hydrodynamics in the area where the mussel units are located. The interaction between the hydrodynamics and mussel farming in Chalastra (NW Thessalonikigulf) has been investigated during last decades. In the framework of the study of optimizing the quality of mussels production in mussel farming areas, a laboratory channel was designed, where the flow around and possibly through the mussel shocks would be studied in physical scale. The experiments were designed in physical/natural scale and the relevant variables were determined. Moreover, the specific positions for the measurements, the depth of the flow and the velocity currents were also determined. The following three mean velocity values of entrance water velocity U were used in the experiment; 5 cm/sec, 7 cm/sec and 9cm/sec. A basic research parameter used in the experiment was the distance between the mussel shocks. Four cases were taken into account: 300mm, 500mm, 700mm and 900mm. The final goal was the determination of the velocity field in the areas around the shocks. The velocity field was studied with the modern Particle Image Velocimetry technique. According to the above presented experiments, for distances between the shocks greater than 500 mm the velocity field is almost restored. Furthermore the case of larger distance between the shocks (i.e. 90cm) present the largest percentage of the velocity class 5-10cm/sec(occurring for entrance current velocities 7 and 9 cm/s)which seem to be the best range for mussel’s growth.

Keywords current velocity, laboratory experiments, mussel shocks, PIV method.

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A Face Recognition Library using Convolutional Neural Networks

AbstractIn this work, we propose a face recognition library, with the objective of lowering the implementation complexity of face recognition features on applications in general. The library is based on Convolutional Neural Networks; a special kind of Neural Network specialized for image data. We present the main motivations for the use of face recognition, as well as the main interface for using the library features. We describe the overall architecture structure of the library and evaluated it on a large scale scenario. The proposed library achieved an accuracy of 98.14% when using a required confidence of 90%, and an accuracy of 99.86% otherwise.

KeywordsArtificial Intelligence, CNNs, Face Recognition, Image Recognition, Machine Learning, Neural Networks.

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Optical Rheology of a Polydimethylsiloxane Fluid in Jeffrey-Hamel Type Flow

Abstract The rheo-optical behavior of a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluid was examined at room temperature for various pressure drops (flow rates) across a Jeffrey Hamel type converging wedge flow cell. The strain-rates were computed from local velocity measurements using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and the planar extensional flow behavior of the polymer melt was studied via birefringence measurements along the centerline of the flow cell. The linear relation between the stress and polarizability tensors were confirmed over a range of strain rates that extended well into the non-Newtonian region. The first normal stress difference (FNSD) was calculated from the local velocity measurements using a two-term Goddard-Miller model with a single Maxwell-type relaxation time constant of 0.0174 s computed from Rouse model and a zero-shear viscosity of 300 Pa.s. A linear stress-optical coefficient of 1.41 x 10-10 Pa-1 was obtained for PDMS in planar extensional flow at room temperature from the flow birefringence measurements and the first normal stress difference (FNSD) computed using the Goddard-Miller model. This compares well with values for PDMS in the range of 0.909 – 1.84 x 10-10 Pa-1 at room temperature as reported by various researchers.

Keywords Polydimethylsiloxane, Flow Birefringence, Jeffrey-Hamel Flow, Stress-Optical Coefficient, Goddard-Miller Model.

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Innovative anaerobic submerged media in small waste treatment plants in Hungary

Abstract During the past 10 years 32 anaerobic FLEXIPAK®-MINI waste water treatment plants were installed in Hungary, all in unique, energy saving communal areas without public sewer systems. Innovative research and development, as well as planning were carried out by GYULAVÁRI CONSULTING Ltd. (Gyulavári & Kormos, 1993).

Using the TURBOPAK® contact units developed by our company, the anaerobic treatment process has provided phase separation (removal of suspended solids) and biological partial treatment at the same time, ensured partly by the sloping, 60º angle installation of the units, generating a gravitational upward flow. The multi cell contact unit provides a 150 m2/m3 specific anaerobic biofilm surface for the microorganisms.

Based on our experience with combined dual processes, the TURBOPAK® contact unit provides an innovative, efficient and cost effective solution for intensification, compared to formerly known anaerobic, energy free solutions. The new innovative equipment was registered under the FLEXIPAK®-MINI brand name and the manufacturer of TURBOPAK® (System Gyulavári) is PANDAN Ltd. (Hungary).

Keywords FLEXIPAK®-Mini, submerged, anaerobic system, TURBOPAK® submerged, biological, fix-media (System Gyulavári).

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Big Data, Decision Tree Induction, and Image Analysis for the Discovery of Decision Rules for Colon Examination

Abstract— The aim of our research was to develop a method that allows us automatically to discover the decision rules for diagnosing medical images in normal tissue images and images showing a polyp. We used a data set of images that came from an endoscope video system used for colon examination. The data set contains 283 normal tissue images and 61 polyp images. The 283 normal images consist of dark regions and reflection. One must decide if the image shows a polyp or not. This is a two-class problem. The unequal number of the data in the two classes makes our problem to an unbalanced data set problem. The polyps in the images were identified and selected by a “well-trained” medical expert. Based on these medical images, we study the behavior of two different statistical texture descriptors, the co-occurrence matrix-texture descriptor and our novel Random set texture descriptor. We review the theory of both texture descriptors and then we apply them to our medical data set. We used a decision-tree induction method to learn the classification rules based on our tool “Decision Master”. In both cases, for the full unequally distributed data set and for the balanced data set, we achieved the best error rate based the Random-set texture descriptor. The performance of the co-occurrence matrix-texture descriptor was worse. For statistical based texture descriptors large enough texture are necessary that cannot always guaranteed for medical objects. Since the co-occurrence matrix is based on higher order statistic that might be the reason for the worse performance. The results show that decision tree induction and image analysis based on our novel texture descriptor is an excellent method to mine medical images for the decision rules even when the data set is unbalanced, but not only that makes our Random-set based texture descriptor favorable. It also gives a flexible way to describe the appearance of the medical objects in symbolic terms, the computation time is less, and it can be set up as software module that can be flexible used in different systems.

Keywords— Image Analysis, Endoscope Images, Colon Examination, Polyp Images, Decision Tree Induction, Random Set Texture Descriptor, Co-occurrence Texture Descriptor, Unbalanced Data Set Problem.

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Experimental Study of Problem of Estrangement of AR. Drone Four Rotor Helicopter Velocity Parameter Calculated by the Internal IMU

AbstractFor four rotor helicopter system, the velocity parameter is important for stable real-time control, and the velocity is calculated by the IMU (Internal Measurement Unit) from the three-axis acceleration and gyro sensors.

Since the IMU unit developed and designed for multi-purpose use, high-frequency range of the acceleration/gyro sensors information was used for estimating the velocity and it is afraid to do overestimation of the velocity especially when the drone collision against the wall (even with a slight contact) and the impact due to blasts. The result shows that the IMU unit calculated velocity was divergent 20 times from the real velocity measured from the camera on the ceiling even when low speed contact with a wall (25 cm/sec speed). When the estimated velocity parameter would be used for the position control and stabilizing of AR. Drone helicopter, it will be necessary to consider the problem of the estrangement of the velocity to develop the drone system for inspection at infrastructure equipment such as the bridge or tunnel.

KeywordsFour rotor helicopter, AR. Drone 1.0, Velocity estimation, IMU, Investigation of bridge or tunnels.

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Engineering Journal: October Issue 2017

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