Engineering Journal:: March 2017 Issue
Abstract— The paper presents results of a study on the effect of welding technique and heat treatment on structure and creep resistance of welded joints made on thin (0.5–1.2 mm) Inconel 718 sheet with the use of GTAW and laser method without filler metal. Technological high-temperature creep tests consisted in measuring the time to rupture for sheet metal without and with welded joints under constant stress σ = 150 MPa and at constant temperature tc = (860 ± 2)°C.
Sheet metal joints made with the use of GTAW method and laser-welded are characterized with a three-zone macrostructure, including the weld with size of dendritic grains depending on welding method, the heat-affected zone (HAZ), and the base material (BM). For GTAW method, with increasing sheet metal thickness, the observed values of parameter λ2s (distance between axes of second-order branches of dendritic grains) decrease from about 12 µm to 8 µm, and similarly, in case of laser welding, λ2s values decrease from about 9.6 µm to 5 µm with increasing sheet metal thickness.
Thin sheet Inconel 718 in as-delivered condition high-temperature creep-tested have the time to rupture on the level of 12 h at elongation of about 48%. Similar time-to-rupture values characterize the joints made by laser welding. GTAW joints are characterized by about 30% shorter time to rupture and elongation less by about 45%.
The microstructure change induced by heat treatment (solution treatment and two-stage ageing) resulted in significant increase of creep resistance properties of both base metal and laser-welded joints. The time to rupture of heat-treated specimens of thin Inconel 718 sheet and laser-welded joints creep-tested at 860°C ± 2°C under stress of 150 MPa was about 19.5 h with elongation ranging from 23% to 33%.
Keywords— Inconel 718, GTAW, laser welding, heat treatment, microstructure, high-temperature creep.
Applied Biotechnology: Isolation and Detection of an Efficient Biosurfactant from Pseudomonas sp. Comparative Studies against Chemical Surfactants
Abstract— The use of biosurfactants became essential because of its multiple properties and applications. The high toxicity to the environment led to search for new alternatives such as the reduction or replacement by biological surfactants. Because of this, it is in our interest to produce biosurfactants from a non-pathogenic Pseudomonas. We obtained lower values of critical micelle concentration (CMC) from the culture broth than obtained from dodecyl sulfate sodium (SDS) and Pluronic F-68, used as pure surfactans. We found values of critical micellar concentration close to 0.15 mg/L in the purified fraction by adsorption chromatography. We determine by mass spectrometry this strain possibly produces two families of biosurfactants. Majority fraction might be formed by cyclic lipopeptides whose molecular weights could be located in the range of 1100-1200 Da. However, it is necessary perform confirmatory structural studies and to determine the specific structure of these analytes.
Keywords— Biosurfactants, Critical Micellar Concentration, Mass Spectrometry, Pseudomonas, Surfactants.
Combination of emodin with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from clinical specimens
Abstract— Emodin (3-methyl-1,6,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone), a natural anthraquinone compound, is an active compound derivative isolated from the rhizome of Rheum undulatum L, an herb widely used as a laxative in traditional Korean medicine. Emodin has been reported to have a variety of biological activities, such as anti-cancer, vasorelaxation, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. In this study, emodin was evaluated against 20 clinical isolates of MRSA, either alone or in combination with antibiotics. The emodin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against isolates MRSA with MICs/MBCs ranged between 64-256/64-512 μg/mL, for ampicillin 64-512/128-1024 μg/mL, and for oxacillin 8-64/16-64 μg/mL. The combination of emodin plus oxacillin or ampicillin was reduced by ≥4-fold against isolates MRSA tested, evidencing a synergistic effect as defined by a FICI of ≤ 0.5. Furthermore, a time-kill study evaluating the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated after 2-6 h of treatment with the 1/2 MIC of emodin, regardless of whether it was administered alone or with oxacillin (1/2 MIC) or ampicillin (1/2 MIC). In conclusion, emodin exerted synergistic effects when administered with oxacillin or ampicillin and the antibacterial activity and resistant regulation of emodin against clinical isolates of MRSA might be useful in controlling MRSA infections.
Keywords— emodin, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, minimum inhibitory concentrations, minimum bactericidal concentrations, time-kill curves, fractional inhibitory concentration.
Abstract— Steganography technique is more popular in recent years due to high level security involved in transferring the data. In image stegnography scheme the secret message is hidden inside a digital image by using different techniques. Least significant bit (LSB) is the commonly used technique foe embedding the information inside a cover image. A three level security scheme has been developed by using MATLAB with digital signature framework. The developed technique has a simpler approach as compared to other complex technique involved in secure transmission of data. The results are analyzed for different images using Peak Signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and the results reveals that the average PSNR value is enhanced by 15.83% compared to the reference values.
Keywords — Image steganography, PSNR, MATLAB, LSB, Digital signature.
A novel framework for a pull oriented product development and planning based on Quality Function Deployment
Abstract— Nowadays, manufacturing organizations face with increasing pressures from the frequent changes in product type, continuous demand fluctuations and unexpected changes in customer requirements. In order to survive in this turbulent environment, manufacturing organizations must become flexible and responsive to these dynamic changes in the business environment. In this research, this papers has reviewed the current literature in the area of pull-oriented product systems and has suggested a novel framework for a pull-oriented product development system compatible with today’s manufacturing environments. In the proposed framework, using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) 4-stage matrix, a framework for product development has been proposed. The paper has used four general processes for products assembly. The framework provides capabilities for customer order analyze by a decision support system for order acceptance/rejection decision. Moreover, the accepted orders are prioritized into high and low priority orders, considering profitability of orders and a proposed assemble-to-order (ATO) production system for pull-oriented environments will handle the orders’ fulfilment. The validity of proposed framework has been investigated by process analysis and simulating a scenario.
Keywords— Product development system, Pull-oriented system, Quality Function Deployment (QFD), Assemble-to-order production (ATO).
Abstract— To enable locate and segment the window of a car accurately in complex environment, a segmentation algorithm based on region segmentation and boundary constraint is proposed. At first, multi-scale and undirected graph based on region segmentation algorithm is applied to segment the vehicle graph into some small zones and sort according to set rules; then combine and merge the small zones in sequence, The merged region with the maximum boundary smoothness is served as the candidate window; finally judge for windows by combining with geometrical parameters. The experimental results show that the algorithm is accurate in segmentation, the result of the segmentation can maintain the shape and size of the window, therefore the fitness for purpose is strong and the application prospect is wide.
Keywords— graph-based segmentation region mergence，chain code，boundary smoothness，geometrical characteristics.
Flow production of practical and quantitative capillary driven-flow immune sensing chip using a circumferentially-grooved island micro-surface
Abstract— Practical immunoassay chip devices are high-priority needs in point-of-care testing (POCT) for rapid diagnoses. Compared to conventional POCT microchip devices, our report describes a manufacturing process involving laser ablation, inkjet deposition, and cover film sealing that is superior to that used for practical mass production of microchip devices, and produces devices capable of sensitive and reproducible measurements using a capillary-flow-driven system at a practical point-of-care setting. To promote sensitivity and reproducibility, circular islands surrounded by 10-µm-deep grooves were prepared to provide uniformity of printed antibody spots on a capillary flow immunoassay chip. The island surface enabled dense antibody fixation due to droplet surface tension as well as antibody determination by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which demonstrated greater sensitivity than that of a device using a non-island surface. The luminescence intensity of the spots of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PICP) exhibited a good linear relation with PICP concentration in the range 0-600 ng·mL-1, which is suitable for clinical estimation in blood.
Keywords— Capillary driven flow, Sensing Chip, grooved Island, immunoassay chip, ELISA.
Abstract— The authors bring closer the results of social studies conducted on a group of respondents - policemen using police cars during their everyday duty. The study seeks to answer the question: how to improve the daily duty and integrate the devices that are used for the everyday activities by the law enforcement services which contribute to safety or public order? It also seeks information and guidance concerning the actions to be taken in the future for the devices installed in police cars to be the most ergonomic and safest for their users.
Keywords— Safety, traffic, device integration, police car.
Reinforcement Q-Learning and ILC with Self-Tuning Learning Rate for Contour Following Accuracy Improvement of Biaxial Motion Stage
Abstract—Biaxial motion stages are commonly used in precision motion applications. However, the contour following accuracy of a biaxial motion stage often suffers from system nonlinearities and external disturbances. To deal with the above-mentioned problem, a control scheme consisting of a reinforcement Q-learning controller with a self-tuning learning rate and two iterative learning controllers is proposed in this paper. In particular, the reinforcement Q-learning controller is used to compensate for friction and also cope with the problem of dynamics mismatch between different axes. In addition, one of the two iterative learning controllers is used to suppress periodic external disturbances, while the other one is employed to adjust the learning rate of the reinforcement Q-learning controller. Results of contour following experiments indicate that the proposed approach is feasible.
Keywords—Reinforcement Learning, Q-Learning, Iterative Learning Control (ILC), Contour Following.
Abstract — The paper presents a proposal to create a new one-dimensional (1-D) finite element that can substitute for the three-dimensional (3-D) finite model of connection elements in static analysis. The study is conducted on a simple small frame. First, a 3-D model is constructed, followed by the construction of an equivalent two-dimensional (2-D) one. At the final stage, the results of the static analysis of many proposed 1-D element models are compared with the results of the 2-D model. With a special treatment of the connection elements, the results of the analysis of the new 1-D finite element models agree well with the results of the 2-D model.
Keywords: Structures, Finite element methods, Condensation, Timoshenko beam, Connection element, and Small frames.
Abstract— The manipulation of fluids in microchannels has been studied extensively due to its vast array of applications including genome sequencing, single cell detection, cost and time reduction with electronic microdevices. Microfluidics has the potential to influence subject areas from chemical synthesis and biological analysis to optics and information technology. The review paper introduces the advancement of microfluidics in DNA analysis. Wherever possible commercially available device information is also provided to emphasize the importance of that particular technology and its scope. It will briefly introduce you to different types of biosensor technology currently researched and one example that make the conceptual design into a reality.
Keywords— Biosensor, DNA, Electrical, Microfluidics, PDMS.
Abstract— A frozen rotor method based on a mixture multiphase flow model, an RNG k–ε dual-equation turbulence model, and a SIMPLE algorithm is used to perform a numerical simulation of steady flow in a sewage pump that transports solid and liquid phase flows. The method is also utilized to analyze the effect of solid-phase particle density on the hydraulic performance of the sewage pump and predict the wear degree of the overflow components. Results of the study indicate that with the increasing density of solid particles, the head curve of the pump initially decreased and then increased, that is, the head curve had the minimum value. Additionally, the efficiency curve of the pump increased, decreased, and then increased again, indicating an insignificant overall change. Meanwhile, the pump shaft power showed a monotonic upward trend. When the solid-phase density is less than, equal to, and greater than the liquid-phase density, solid-phase concentration on the blade pressure surface shows a distribution law more than, equal to, and less than 10%, respectively. With the increase in density of the delivered solid particles, solid-phase concentration on the blade pressure surface shows a decreasing trend.
Keywords— sewage pump, particle density, frozen rotor method, numerical calculation.
Abstract— Activated carbon obtained from orange peel (ACO) was used as a phenol adsorbent. ACO was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The functional groups present on the sample, were determined by Boehm titration, and it was also determined the point of zero charge (pHpzc). ACO is mainly constituted by micropores, and its structure is turbostratic and lamellar with inorganic impurities. The Boehm titration indicated the basic behavior of the sample. The phenol optimum dosage was 0.1 g/50 cm3 which was determined by the adsorption study. The maximum adsorption level was in the pH range of 4-8 and its kinetics was described by a pseudo second order model. The equilibrium data have fit very well the Langmuir and Sips isotherms models.Keywords— adsorption, agricultural waste, biomass, orange peel, phenol.
Abstract— As an infrastructural and profitable industry, tourism is vital in present day economy and incorporates distinctive extensions and capacities. In the event that it is created suitably, social relations and monetary improvement of nations will be developed and given. Web advancement as a associated tool within the web assumes an extremely deciding part in tourism achievement and appropriate misuse of it can prepare for greater improvement and accomplishment of this industry. Then again, the measure of information in the present world has been expanded and investigation of substantial arrangements of information that is alluded to as large information has been changed over into a key way to deal with upgrade rivalry and set up new strategies meant for improvement, development, advancement, and upgrade of the quantity of clients. Today, huge in sequence is vital issues of statistics supervision in computerized age and one of the primary open doors in tourism industry for ideal misuse of most extreme data. Huge information can shape encounters of keen travel. Surprising development of these information sources has enlivened new Strategies to comprehend the financial marvel in various fields. The systematic approach of huge information underscores the limit of information accumulation and investigation with a phenomenal degree, profundity and scale for taking care of the issues of genuine and utilizations it. In fact, enormous information examinations open the ways to different open doors for building up the present day learning or changing our comprehension of this extension and bolster basic leadership in tourism industry. The reason for this review is to show accommodation of huge information examination to find behavioral examples in tourism industry and propose a model for utilizing information in tourism.
Keywords— Travel proposal, geo-labeled photographs, online networking, sight and sound data recovery.
Design, Analysis & Performance Check of A Multi-Story (G+23) RCC Building by Pushover Analysis using Sap 2000
Abstract— Pushover analysis is one of the most-used nonlinear static procedures for the seismic assessment of structures, due to its simplicity, efficiency in modeling and low computational time. The previous studies about pushover analysis are almost based on symmetric building structures and unidirectional earthquake excitation. This analysis is conducted to evaluate the seismic capacities of a asymmetric-plan building. The seismic response of RC building frame in terms of performance point and the effect of earthquake forces on multi storey building frame with the help of pushover analysis is carried out in this paper. In the present study the building frame is designed as per IS 456:2000 and IS 1893:2002. The main objective of this study is to check the kind of performance a building can give when designed as per Indian Standards. The pushover analysis of the building frame is carried out by using structural analysis and design software SAP 2000 (version 14).
Keywords— Capacity Curve, Performance Point, Pushover analysis, RC building.
Nonlinear Dynamic Time History Analysis of Multistoried RCC Residential G+23 Building for Different Seismic Intensities
Abstract— In this paper study of nonlinear dynamic time history analysis of Twenty three storied RCC residential building considering different seismic/earthquake intensities is carried out and response of such building due to earthquake is studied. The building under consideration is modeled with the help of SAP2000V.14.00 software. Five different time histories have been used considering seismic intensities V, VI, VII, VIII, IX and X on Modified Mercalli's Intensity scale (MMI) for developing the relationship between seismic intensities and seismic responses. The outcome of the study shows similar variation pattern in Seismic responses i.e. base shear and storey displacements with intensities V to X. From the study it is recommended that analysis of multistoried RCC building using Time History method became necessary to ensure safety against earthquake force.
Keywords— Multistoried buildings, Scaling, Seismic responses, Time history analysis.
Abstract— This paper reports a study on the morphology and mechanical behavior of a thermoset-metal composite used in prototype molds as a function of the process conditions. The investigation of the mechanical properties of epoxy-aluminum specimens post-cured using different routines showed that they are related to the self-controlled diffusion characteristic of thermoset polymeric systems. A high-temperature post-cure routine resulted in higher values for the modulus, stiffness and glass transition temperature, Tg, for the specimens. The fracture surfaces analysis showed the presence of defects, which appeared as empty spaces in the epoxy matrix, due to the mixing and casting process. The defect size and the specimen strength showed a direct correlation. The Weibull modulus was 7.95 for the epoxy specimens characterizing low toughness and the presence of defects in the material, as revealed by fractography. The probability of failure increased rapidly to 50% for applied stress greater than 38 MPa.
Keywords— Thermoset-metal, mechanical properties, process conditions.
Gene Expression Chromosomal Correlations in Tumors of Mesodermal Origin: The Case of Rhabdomyosarcoma and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Abstract-since the advent of high throughput methodologies, like microarrays, the load of genomic data has increased geometrically and along with that the need for computational methods which will interpret these data. In the present work we have studied the common gene expression patterns between two tumor cell types of mesodermal origin. In particular, we have attempted to find causal relations between gene expression levels with respect to chromosomal location. We have found that several genes manifested significant relations, using regression analysis and as such they could pose interesting targets for further investigations. This type of analysis can lead to the understanding of the common mechanisms that transform physiological cells to malignant, as well as it reveals a new holistic way to understand the dynamics of tumor onset as well as the mechanistic of oncogenic drivers. Such approaches could prove to be useful in the prediction of genomic targets that could be further studied in order to unravel the mechanics of tumor ontogenesis.
Keywords-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Chromosomal correlations, Mesoderm, Microarrays, Rhabdomyosarcoma.
Abstract— Wire Electrical Discharge Machining (WEDM) endorsed sensation in the production of newer materials, especially for the aerospace and medical industries. Using WEDM technology, convoluted cuts can be made through difficult-to-machine electrically conductive components with the high degree of accessible accuracy and the fine surface quality make WEDM priceless. In other hand Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (AMMCs) are the precise materials for marine, automobile, aerospace, defense, and sports industries which are difficult to cut by conventional methods of machining. In this paper an optimal set of material and machining parameters is derived using hybrid approach called grey-fuzzy approach. For this AMMC samples are produced as per the taguchi experimental design by considering combined material and wire EDM parameters and machined using wedm machine. The obtained responses such as kerf width, tool wear, process cost and surface roughness are optimized using grey-fuzzy approach which is obtained by combining grey relational analysis and fuzzy logic.
Keywords— Wire EDM, AMMCs, Taguchi design, tool wear, process cost Grey-fuzzy.