Engineering Journal IJOER: December 2016
Abstract— The objective of the study is estimating probability density functions of arithmetic operations on random variables. There are many methods that use specific parametrical and non-parametrical models in order to obtain accurate results. However, there are not many studies on speed of convergence and computation complexity of these methods.
This paper introduces a new method of estimation used to obtain results on bounded random variables. The method is based on a new publication provided by Jaroszewicz and Korzen (2012). The algorithm uses numerical analysis techniques such as numerical integration and curve interpolation. Author's method is compared to the well-known Monte Carlo method.
Keywords— Random Variables, Arithmetical operations, Numerical integration, Curve Interpolation, Monte Carlo Method, Convergence.
Small Farm Agrifood Supply Chains and Sustainable Food Security in the Developed World: A System Dynamics Methodology
Abstract— The aim of the present research is to enhance food security and sustainability in developed countries through providing a simulation tool for supporting the impact assessment of interventionary policies for the support of smallholdings’ farming. To this effect, we first discuss the role of small farms towards ensuring food security and sustainability in the developed world. Following, the System Dynamics methodology is employed to explore the effect of interventions on the diffusion of small farms’ cultivated commodities to the specific Greek food market. Following, a simulation modelling tool is developed that specifically captures four external factors affecting the adoption rate of the refereed agrifood products, namely: (i) consumers’ environmental awareness, (ii) social implications, (iii) economic incentives, and (iv) health and nutrition consciousness. The simulation results suggest that policy interventions that could play a critical role in ensuring food security and sustainable development in developed nations should mainly focus on the increase of advertising expenditure in promoting small-scale farming and locally cultivated products, on consumers’ training and education, and on subsidies of investments in smallholdings.
Keywords— Agrifood Supply Chains, Food Security and Sustainability, Simulation, Small Farms, System Dynamics.
Determination of the total chromium in vegetable, rice samples cultivated and marketed along Nhue River
Abstract— The total chromium ions in vegetable and rice samples can be determined by spectrophotometric method using diphenylcarbazide reagent after their treatment. The treatment processes include: fresh sample treatment, digestion and oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr (VI). This oxidation was carried out very carefully using (NH)2S2O8 AgNO3 catalyst, NaCl then combining with H2O2 in alkaline media. The chromium contents in the root samples were higher than in the fresh stems samples (for spinach). In the same locations, if the chromium contents in the vegetable are high, the chromium contents in the rice samples are high too.
Keywords— Rice sample, Vegetable sample, Chromium oxidation, Diphenylcarbazide.
Production of Pumice-Based Lightweight Material using Coal Bottom Ashes from Two Industrial Factories in Niğde (Turkey)
Abstract— The production of lightweight material using bottom ash (BA) generated from industrial factories has received further attention because of the economical use of naturally existing raw materials, reuse of waste material, and energy saving approach. In order prevent disposal of waste BAs and turn these wastes into usable construction materials, the study consists of two steps. The pumice-based lightweight materials were produced using the BAs supplied from Bor Sugar Factory and Göknur Foodstuff Co. Nigde Factory sieved through 0.5 mm square mesh sieves in the first and the second steps, respectively. Considering CC-40 and CC-80 concrete classes, mixing that depends on volume basis was applied to the samples since specific bulk densities of the coal BAs and pumices were different from each other. Fine aggregates of the BAs in the volume ranges of 0-25-50-75-100% were displaced with those of the pumice. ÇİMSA CEM I type Portland cement was used. 28 day-axial compressive strengths, specific bulk densities, water absorption percentages, porosities and axial compressive strengths loss percentage after the freezing of the samples that were applied to cure conditions at different mixing ratios were measured from 4.1 to 5.2 MPa for CC-40 and 8.5 to 11.7 MPa for CC-80; from 0.89 to 1.05 g/cm3 for CC-40 and 0.92 to 1.05 g/cm3 for CC-80; from 42.5 to 46.9 for CC-40 and 34.1 to 45.1 for CC-80; from 40.1 to 43.0 for CC-40 and 33.2 to 40.7 for CC-80 and from 10 to 25 for CC-40 and 15 to 20 for CC-80, respectively.
Keywords— coal bottom ash, environment, lightweight construction material, Niğde, pumice, reuse, Turkey.
The grinding-aids effect of moisture, triethanolamine (TEA) and ethylene glycol (EG) on grinding performance and product quality of calcite
Abstract— In this study, the effects of liquid additives such as water, triethanolamine (TEA) and ethylene glycol (EG) on the dry fine grinding of calcite were investigated by using a laboratory scale vertical stirred mill. The experiments were carried out by a batch operation, and the change in average particle size (D50) and specific surface area (SSA) (m2/g) and colour properties (L*, a*, b*, ∆E, WI) of product. The results show that the chemical additives and water promotes the fine grinding of calcite and that the maximum specific surface area of calcite (2.97 m2/g) obtained with EG additives 0.5%. The average particle size at this point was 3.16 µm. The results also show that the lightness (L) values of the ground calcite products slightly increased from 97.62 to 98.53 with grinding aids (TEA) increased from 0% to 0.5%. The whiteness index (WI) value of the ground calcite products slightly increased from 97.41 to 98.25 with grinding aids (TEA).
Keywords— Stirred mill, fine grinding, calcite, grinding aid, fineness, surface area, colour properties.
Abstract— Smartphones are becoming more popular these days. Android operating system is dominating the smartphone market with 85% market share. The growth in Android based smartphones is encouraging malware authors to move various mobile app stores with malicious applications. This is done for unauthorized access of useful/private information stored in a smartphone by utilizing vulnerabilities in applications. This paper is intended to yield exhaustive literature survey and analysis of malware detection techniques on Android. To have effective detection techniques we have focused on the specific family i.e. AnserverBot family of Android malware, which is one of the largest Android malware family. We designed a tool based on specific features of AnserverBot family. These perticular features are collected via static and manual analysis of AnserverBot family. Our tool is capable of capturing all the malwares of AnserverBot family from a large collection of the applications. This detection scheme effectively detects the AnserverBot malware with high accuracy.
Keywords- Android smartphones, Malware detection, smartphones operating systems, AnserverBot, smartphones applications.
Abstract— Drilling operations are used widely in industrial applications. In these operations several drill bits having different drill geometry and different tool materials such as HSS and WC are used to obtain the holes at desired surface quality and tolerances. The big problem in drilling operations with drill bits is to achieve a hole diameter at micron accuracy. In order to be able to drill at desired accuracy the main factor is that the drill bit must be moved at constant feed speed and can be adjusted. In this experimental study, a standard workbench based drilling machine have been used and the computer controlled mechanism have been set up to adjust the Z-axis to drive the drill bit at constant speed, so the drilling diameter will be kept at desired tolerance and at the drill axis. The parameters such as feed speed, drilling length, entering and exit speed related to drilling machine tools are adjusted the software written in Visual Studio C#. Communication between step motor control and computer is provided by control card constituted with microprocessor. Also, operation parameters are saved to the memory by EEPROM installed on the circuit and the working of the system is realized without computer connection. By the installed system the drilling holes at micron accuracy (0.18-0.25µ) were achieved in drilling operations carried out at different feed speeds and drilling lengths on the computer controlled Z-axis drilling machine tools.
Keywords— Drill Bit, Drilling Machine, Hole Diameter Accuracy, Computer Control, Axis Control.
Synthesis of Discrete State Observer by One Measurable State Variable and Identification of Immeasurable Disturbing Influence
Abstract – The entire research presents synthesis of discrete state observer by one measurable state variable and identification of immeasurable disturbing influence, aiming to suggest a procedure for reconstruction of the immeasurable disturbing influence. The suggested solution aims also optimization according to the time of completion of the reconstruction process.
Keywords – discrete state observer, disturbing influence, immeasurable disturbing influence, measurable state variables, observer synthesis, state space, state space model, pole placement.
Abstract- In this paper, we study the global stability, periodicity character and some other properties of solutions of the rational dynamic equation on discrete time scales
Keywords-Rational dynamic equation, Time scales, Equilibrium point, Global attractor, Periodicity, Boundedness, Invariant interval.
Abstract— Cognitive radio is an eminent technology that has been deployed in multiple communication systems in recent times. As in case of any communication system, the performance can be analyzed purely on the basis of transmitter and receiver. But it can be further enhanced by introducing relay concepts into the system. In a primary network, the data transmission takes place through a licensed channel. But at times the spectrum is not properly utilized and at that instant the secondary network comes into the picture, which takes care such that the efficiency of the spectrum shouldn’t be wasted. The secondary network consists of ST (Secondary Transmitter), SD (Secondary Destination) and Eavesdroppers. Here in the endeavor the main focus lies on the secondary network operations. The throughput of the network can be abruptly increased by introducing relays. To increase the overall system ability MIMO and OFDM techniques were implemented. The comparative analysis of the system with the single, multiple relays and the traditional direct transmission schemes has been done in order to analyze the system’s performance.
Keywords — Cognitive Radio, Eavesdropper, MIMO, OFDM, Relay Selection, Throughput.
Lineaments Determination of Western Part of Iraqi Western Desert using Aeromagnetic and Gravity Data
Abstract— The aim of this study is to investigate the boundaries of geological structures of the western part of Iraqi Western Desert using aeromagnetic and Bouguer gravity data. To achieve this, The CET (Centre for Exploration Targeting) Grid Analysis extension was applied to aeromagnetic and gravity data, and It is supposed that the provide results are unbiased. Decompensative anomaly map of an isostatic residual gravity anomaly map shows NNW maxima trend in western part of the study area, while the eastern part shows NS minima, where this gravity low is thought to be an important basin. The reduced to the pole magnetic map in general agrees with the gravity interpretation, however there are some differences related to the magnetic susceptibility variations within the basement. The basement topography was furthermore estimated using Oasis Montaj that based on Bill Pearson’s implementation of R. L. Parker’s algorithm (1972). Four sets of lineaments were determined using the CET grid and derivative analysis. These lineaments are thought to be related to the formation of the basins in the Western Desert.
Keywords— Iraq, Aeromagnetic methods, Gravity methods, Lineaments Determination.
Abstract— An immersive virtual reality display device such as an HMD (Head Mounted Display) provides virtual experiences by blocking external visual information and providing a computer generated virtual world. On the other hand, the augmented reality system does not present a complete virtual world as the immersive virtual reality system does, but it can further enhance the effect of reality by combining virtual objects in a specific space of the real world that the user sees. In this paper, we propose an immersive multi-view augmented reality system that can add advantages of immersive virtual reality system to augmented reality system. In our proposed system, in addition to the visual information of the camera attached to the HMD for the immersive environment, the visual information of the HMD camera was extended by showing the visual information captured by a mobile device in the same augmented reality space.
Keywords— augmented reality, HMD (head mounted display), immersive, multi-view, virtual.
Abstract— In this paper, an approach to recognize object efficiently is presented based on empirical wavelet features. In many computer vision applications, object recognition is required and it is a challenging task due to size and orientation of objects in the image. The proposed approach uses Empirical Wavelet Transform (EWT) to extract the characteristic of objects in an image. From the components of EWT, energy and entropy features are extracted. Then K-nearest neighbor classifier is used to recognize the object in the given image. The results show that the fusion of energy and entropy features provides better classification accuracy of 99.81% where the energy and entropy features provide 98.42% and 98.97% respectively on the benchmark object database named Columbia Object Image Library Dataset (COIL-100).
Keywords— Object recognition, Empirical wavelet transform, energy features, entropy features, KNN classifier.
Abstract— In this paper, an efficient approach for glaucomatous image classification system using fundus images is proposed. The main aim of this study is to detect glaucoma accurately in order to reduce the visual loss and impairment. The proposed system uses two important texture features; Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Local Binary Pattern (LBP) in an efficient manner. These texture features are extracted not only from the fundus image but also the optical density image obtained from the fundus image. Before extracting features, region of interest is obtained from the Green channel of the fundus image as it has high contrast than other two colour components. Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier is used for the classification of fundus image into normal or abnormal based on the extracted features. Results show that the proposed system provides promising results with 100% sensitivity and 99% specificity.
Keywords— Glaucoma, fundus image, optical density, GLCM, LBP, SVM classifier.
Abstract— The use of available renewable energy sources for a cleaner and greener energy production is crucial for a country like Turkey. For this reason, the Turkish government, within the scope of Vision 2023, aims to use renewable energy sources such as solar, wind, wave and geothermal in the most effective way. It aims to increase the share of renewable energy sources in electricity generation to 30% by the year 2023. In addition to Turkey having a great potential for wind energy, wind energy is the second most widely used, both actual and planned, energy source after hydro energy for electric generation all over the world. Turkey had been late for studies in the field of wind energy, but it has progressed rapidly. Nevertheless, the 2023 targets are very optimistic and is a serious goal. In order to achieve this goal, there are several requirements, such as identification of available potential, getting technological know-how, obtaining technical equipment, making policies and legal regulations, realizing domestic production and supplying finance as well as duly managing them as a whole. In this study, the wind energy of Turkey was analyzed in terms of historical background, available potential, politics and policies and sectoral development and the 2023 targets were evaluated.
Keywords— Wind energy, vision 2023 targets, renewable energy, wind power plants.