Thursday, 31 August 2017

Engineering Journal: August Issue 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-8, August 2017 with AD Publications

Performance Analysis of Regular and Irregular Structure Under Seismic Effect for RCC and Steel Composite Column Using Response Spectrum

AbstractComposite construction is a modern method of construction presently holds a wide area of interest. This paper includes performance analysis of regular and irregular structure under seismic effect for RCC and Composite column. Modeling and analysis of structure is done by using ETABS software. Since composite construction is combination of steel section and concrete, which shows the properties of both steel and concrete. The compression efficiency of concrete and high ductile properties of steel together contributes to the structure for its perfect durability.

KeywordsComposite Column, ETABS.

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Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbon resistant plasticized PVC hoses

Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of two types of aliphatic hydrocarbons resistant soft PVC hoses. A number of tests were performed to determine the internal structures and the difference between the hoses. First tests concerned with pentane resistance, the plasticizer and extender's effects on variations in the structure. The solubility of gas in plasticizer and the changing of morphology determined the applicability. The second analysis of FTIR results can show the internal structure’s composition, what the difference is between the two formulations. The weight changes of the hoses can shows the material’s gas resistance. The gas diffusion's driving force was the gas evaporation. The gas diffusion can be determined from the decrease of the quantity of the hydrocarbons. The internal structure was also observed by DMA. The measurement was made after a pentane soak of simple samples. The morphology, the material's density, mechanical properties and aliphatic hydrocarbon resistance of samples were determined. After all the measurements, the difference between the products was noticeable during even visual inspection of the samples as well.

Keywords: PVC hose, FTIR, DMA, gas diffusion, aliphatic hydrocarbon resistant.

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Characterization of Layered GaSe Crystals Intercalated with RbNO3 Ferroelectric Salt and their Application for Electric Capacitors

Abstract XRD, SEM, EDX investigations as well as wide temperature (T = 5–300 K) photoluminescence measurements of GaSe single crystals intercalated from the melt of RbNO3 ferroelectric salt at various temperatures and exposure times are performed in this work. Intercalation by this method results in GaSe matrix fragmentation by separate polycrystals 1 mm in size which consist of bulk GaSe segments (with sizes up to 50.0 mkm) and veins of RbNO3 ferroelectric salt with thickness reaching 2–3 mkm. Within the GaSe segments are inclusions of nano-sized phases consisting of RbNO3 salt whose diameter does not exceed 120 nm. It has been shown that the creation of GaSe<RbNO3> hybrid structure has an insignificant influence on the optical properties of GaSe matrix, since in the photoluminescence spectra of GaSe<RbNO3> at T = 300 K one can observe emission of free excitons which is typical for GaSe single crystals. The electrical investigations performed indicate that the intercalated GaSe<RbNO3> or GaSe<KNO3> are capable of accumulating electric energy, and prototypes of supercapacitors based on them possess: specific long-time energy 105 kJ/kg and resource of cycles > 106.

Keywords Layered crystal, GaSe, intercalation, ferroelectric, supercapacitors.

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On the Method of Construction of the Dependence of the Heat Extension Coefficient on Temperature in Heat-resistant Alloys

Abstract In this paper, we consider methods and methods for studying rods from high-temperature alloys, in particular, the study of the dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion on temperature. According to the tasks of the paper, methods are developed for taking into account the presence of local surface heat exchanges, temperatures, and internal point heat sources in the study of rods made of high-temperature alloys. The scientific significance of the project is due to the fact that the results of the development can be used for in-depth study of the nonlinear thermal and physical state of the structural rod elements that work in the presence of heterogeneous types of heat sources. Such designs include gas-generating, nuclear, thermal and hydrogen power plants, as well as jet engines and internal combustion engines. In order to ensure continuous reliable operation of these facilities, the authors developed fundamental methods that allow to adequately simulate non-linear thermophysical processes in the rod bearing elements of installations taking into account simultaneous presence of local thermal insulation, heat exchange, temperatures, and internal point heat sources. The laws of the distribution of temperature, elastic, temperature and thermoelastic components of strains and stresses, as well as displacement, are obtained. This became the basis for the creation in the future of a program in the programming language PYTHON, with the help of which it is possible to construct the corresponding fields of temperature distribution, all the components of deformation, stress and displacement in the form of graphs.

Keywords Coefficient of thermal expansion, High-temperature alloy, steady-state thermophysical process, Thermal conductivity.

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Characteristics of Settlement Consolidation and Influencing Factors Analysis of Dredger Fill of Clay Soil Mixing Sand

Abstract Sedimentation column that the size of100×500mm is used to study the relationship between the self weight settlement of cohesive soil and the initial sand-mud ratio and initial water content of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand. Test results show that:(1) the consolidation time of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand is mainly related to the size of the settlement column, compared with the initial water content, the influence of sand-mud ratio is not significant. The larger the size of the settlement column, the longer time of gravity consolidation will be completed, and the higher initial water content, the shorter time of consolidation. (2) The settlement curve of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand is in accordance with the relation formula .In the formula, is the steady settlement. The stability time of settlement consolidation can be deduced by this formula. Under the condition of the same water content, the consolidation settlement of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand increases linearly with the sand-mud ratio, but the amplitude of the increase is not large; (3) the logarithmic curve of consolidation settlement is basically divided into three stages: The straight line segment, the upper concave line segment and the lower concave line segment. At first, the slope of the linear section increases gradually with the increase of the initial water content; The upper concave curve gradually decreases with the increase of water content, and when the initial water content reaches a certain value, the concave curve becomes a straight line; The lower concave curve section gradually changes to the curve type, then the slope of the settlement curve decreases and finally tends to the horizontal.

Keywords clay soil mixing sand; self weight consolidation settlement; initial water content; initial sand-mud ratio.

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Parametric Analysis of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower under Seismic Loads, Wind Loads and Dead Load through Staad. Pro

Abstract Hyperbolic cooling towers are large, thin shell reinforced concrete structures which contribute to environmental protection and to power generation efficiency and reliability. The safety of hyperbolic cooling towers is important to the continuous operation of a power plant. It is observed from the analysis that maximum displacement, support reactions, support moments, stresses and bending moments in plates due to seismic loading, wind loading and dead load i.e. its self weight on a hyperbolic cooling tower is continuous function of geometry (top diameter, throat diameter and height). Earthquake zone plays the important role in analysis. So from this work it can be observed that 300 mm thickness, throat diameter 60m and height 250m is much efficient among all but if height is mandatory to extent than height should not be more than 159m (height taken from actual work) and 170 m height is critical.

Keywords Cooling tower, node displacement, support reactions, plate stresses.

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Sub-pixel Distance Measurement Algorithm Based on Improved SURF

Abstract A sub-pixel-level measurement algorithm based on improved SURF is proposed. Firstly, the sobel operator is used to extract the edge of the image quickly in order to highlight the potential feature point, and reduce the detected range of the SURF algorithm. Then use the SURF algorithm to obtain the sub-pixel level coordinates of the matching feature points in the two images. After the match, the affine transformation remove the wrong match point. Finally, the moving distance is calculated by using the sub-pixel-level coordinates of the matching points. The experimental results show that the error of the moving distance is less than 3 %, according to the feature points of the two images. And if the original image resolution is 2560 * 1440, the required running time is only 0.3 to 0.4 seconds.

Keywords Distance Measurement, SURF, Sub-pixel, Sobel.

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Trace Analysis of Carbazole in Commercial Diesel by using Adsorption on Activated Biochar from Rice Husk Pyrolysis

Abstract The valorization of rice husk biochar obtained by pyrolysis was studied by production high quality activated carbon. Activated carbon (AC) chemically treated by K2CO3, was used as sorbent phase in bar adsorptive microextraction followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer analysis (BAµE/GC×GC-qMS) for trace analysis of carbazole in commercial diesel. The prepared AC was characterized by N2 adsorption, SEM-EDS and pHPZC. Assays of nitrogen adsorption isotherm demonstrated that the AC presented microporosity and the Density Functional Theory Calculation was applied to obtain information concerning the micropore size distribution. The BET surface area and total pore volume were 1850 m2g-1and 0.83 cm3g-1, respectively. AC from rice huskpyrolysis (RH) showed an acceptable adsorption capacity for Carbazole in diesel matrices allowed us to obtain average recoveries of 91.0 % and convenient analytical parameters. From the data obtained, the proposed methodology proved to be a suitable sorption-based static microextraction alternative for monitoring trace levels of carbazole in commercial diesel.

Keywords Rice husk pyrolysis, Activated carbon, Chemical activation, Bar adsorptive microextraction, BAµE/GC×GC-qMS, Nitrogen compounds, Diesel.

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Research on the Unsteady Discharge Flow of Dry Chemical Powder Tank

Abstract In this study, we investigated the activation of powders by the supply of N2 gas in the dry chemical powder tanks. In this study, we investigated the effect of N2 gas on the activation of dry chemical powder (KHCO3) in Dry chemical Powder Tank, We studied how dry chemical powder (KHCO3) is activated according to the number of nozzles in the tank. 170 kg, and 3000 kg models, the number of nozzles was 4, 8. We gave the points to confirm the activation of the powder. This study describes the optimal conditions for activation depending on the type of dry chemical powder tank and the number of nozzles.

Keywords Powder activation, Discharge Flow, Dry Chemical Powder Tank, nitrogen gas.

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Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Unsteady Nanofluids in a Small Pipe with Pulse Pressure

Abstract In the present paper, developing turbulence forced convection flows were numerically investigated by using water-Al2O3 nano-fluid through a circular compact pipe which has 4.5mm diameter. Each model has a steady state and uniform heat flux (UHF) at the wall. The whole numerical experiments were processed under the RPM 100 to 500 and the nano-fluid models were made by the Alumina volume fraction. Single-phase fluid models were defined through nano-fluid physical and thermal properties calculations, Two-phase models (mixture granular model) were processed in 100nm diameter. The results show that comparison of nusselt number and heat transfer rate are improved as the Al2O3 volume fraction increased. All of the numerical flow simulations are processed by the FLUENT. The results show an increase from volume fraction concentration and an increase in heat transfer coefficient with increasing RPM.

Keywords nanofluid, mixture, alumina, nusselt number, heat transfer coefficient, Pulsation pressure.

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Analysis of laminar nanofluid forced convection heat transport through the CFD

AbstractIn the present paper, developing laminar forced convection flows were numerically investigated by using water-Al2O3 nano-fluid through a circular compact pipe which has 4.5mm diameter. Each model has a steady state and uniform heat flux (UHF) at the wall. The whole numerical experiments were processed under the Re = 1050 and the nano-fluid models were made by the Alumina volume fraction. Single-phase fluid models were defined through nano-fluid physical and thermal properties calculations, Two-phase model (mixture granular model) were processed in 100nm diameter. The results show that Nusselt number and heat transfer rate are improved as the Al2O3 volume fraction increased. All of the numerical flow simulations are processed by the FLUENT. The results show the increment of thermal transfer from the volume fraction concentration.

KeywordsNanofluid, Alumina, Laminar flow, Mixture, Nusselt number, Heat transfer coefficient, Homogeneous flow.

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Experimental-laboratory study of the flow around mussel shocks

Abstract The productivity in an organized mussel culture area is closely related to the hydrodynamics in the area where the mussel units are located. The interaction between the hydrodynamics and mussel farming in Chalastra (NW Thessalonikigulf) has been investigated during last decades. In the framework of the study of optimizing the quality of mussels production in mussel farming areas, a laboratory channel was designed, where the flow around and possibly through the mussel shocks would be studied in physical scale. The experiments were designed in physical/natural scale and the relevant variables were determined. Moreover, the specific positions for the measurements, the depth of the flow and the velocity currents were also determined. The following three mean velocity values of entrance water velocity U were used in the experiment; 5 cm/sec, 7 cm/sec and 9cm/sec. A basic research parameter used in the experiment was the distance between the mussel shocks. Four cases were taken into account: 300mm, 500mm, 700mm and 900mm. The final goal was the determination of the velocity field in the areas around the shocks. The velocity field was studied with the modern Particle Image Velocimetry technique. According to the above presented experiments, for distances between the shocks greater than 500 mm the velocity field is almost restored. Furthermore the case of larger distance between the shocks (i.e. 90cm) present the largest percentage of the velocity class 5-10cm/sec(occurring for entrance current velocities 7 and 9 cm/s)which seem to be the best range for mussel’s growth.

Keywords current velocity, laboratory experiments, mussel shocks, PIV method.

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A Face Recognition Library using Convolutional Neural Networks

AbstractIn this work, we propose a face recognition library, with the objective of lowering the implementation complexity of face recognition features on applications in general. The library is based on Convolutional Neural Networks; a special kind of Neural Network specialized for image data. We present the main motivations for the use of face recognition, as well as the main interface for using the library features. We describe the overall architecture structure of the library and evaluated it on a large scale scenario. The proposed library achieved an accuracy of 98.14% when using a required confidence of 90%, and an accuracy of 99.86% otherwise.

KeywordsArtificial Intelligence, CNNs, Face Recognition, Image Recognition, Machine Learning, Neural Networks.

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Optical Rheology of a Polydimethylsiloxane Fluid in Jeffrey-Hamel Type Flow

Abstract The rheo-optical behavior of a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluid was examined at room temperature for various pressure drops (flow rates) across a Jeffrey Hamel type converging wedge flow cell. The strain-rates were computed from local velocity measurements using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and the planar extensional flow behavior of the polymer melt was studied via birefringence measurements along the centerline of the flow cell. The linear relation between the stress and polarizability tensors were confirmed over a range of strain rates that extended well into the non-Newtonian region. The first normal stress difference (FNSD) was calculated from the local velocity measurements using a two-term Goddard-Miller model with a single Maxwell-type relaxation time constant of 0.0174 s computed from Rouse model and a zero-shear viscosity of 300 Pa.s. A linear stress-optical coefficient of 1.41 x 10-10 Pa-1 was obtained for PDMS in planar extensional flow at room temperature from the flow birefringence measurements and the first normal stress difference (FNSD) computed using the Goddard-Miller model. This compares well with values for PDMS in the range of 0.909 – 1.84 x 10-10 Pa-1 at room temperature as reported by various researchers.

Keywords Polydimethylsiloxane, Flow Birefringence, Jeffrey-Hamel Flow, Stress-Optical Coefficient, Goddard-Miller Model.

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Innovative anaerobic submerged media in small waste treatment plants in Hungary

Abstract During the past 10 years 32 anaerobic FLEXIPAK®-MINI waste water treatment plants were installed in Hungary, all in unique, energy saving communal areas without public sewer systems. Innovative research and development, as well as planning were carried out by GYULAVÁRI CONSULTING Ltd. (Gyulavári & Kormos, 1993).

Using the TURBOPAK® contact units developed by our company, the anaerobic treatment process has provided phase separation (removal of suspended solids) and biological partial treatment at the same time, ensured partly by the sloping, 60º angle installation of the units, generating a gravitational upward flow. The multi cell contact unit provides a 150 m2/m3 specific anaerobic biofilm surface for the microorganisms.

Based on our experience with combined dual processes, the TURBOPAK® contact unit provides an innovative, efficient and cost effective solution for intensification, compared to formerly known anaerobic, energy free solutions. The new innovative equipment was registered under the FLEXIPAK®-MINI brand name and the manufacturer of TURBOPAK® (System Gyulavári) is PANDAN Ltd. (Hungary).

Keywords FLEXIPAK®-Mini, submerged, anaerobic system, TURBOPAK® submerged, biological, fix-media (System Gyulavári).

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Big Data, Decision Tree Induction, and Image Analysis for the Discovery of Decision Rules for Colon Examination

Abstract— The aim of our research was to develop a method that allows us automatically to discover the decision rules for diagnosing medical images in normal tissue images and images showing a polyp. We used a data set of images that came from an endoscope video system used for colon examination. The data set contains 283 normal tissue images and 61 polyp images. The 283 normal images consist of dark regions and reflection. One must decide if the image shows a polyp or not. This is a two-class problem. The unequal number of the data in the two classes makes our problem to an unbalanced data set problem. The polyps in the images were identified and selected by a “well-trained” medical expert. Based on these medical images, we study the behavior of two different statistical texture descriptors, the co-occurrence matrix-texture descriptor and our novel Random set texture descriptor. We review the theory of both texture descriptors and then we apply them to our medical data set. We used a decision-tree induction method to learn the classification rules based on our tool “Decision Master”. In both cases, for the full unequally distributed data set and for the balanced data set, we achieved the best error rate based the Random-set texture descriptor. The performance of the co-occurrence matrix-texture descriptor was worse. For statistical based texture descriptors large enough texture are necessary that cannot always guaranteed for medical objects. Since the co-occurrence matrix is based on higher order statistic that might be the reason for the worse performance. The results show that decision tree induction and image analysis based on our novel texture descriptor is an excellent method to mine medical images for the decision rules even when the data set is unbalanced, but not only that makes our Random-set based texture descriptor favorable. It also gives a flexible way to describe the appearance of the medical objects in symbolic terms, the computation time is less, and it can be set up as software module that can be flexible used in different systems.

Keywords— Image Analysis, Endoscope Images, Colon Examination, Polyp Images, Decision Tree Induction, Random Set Texture Descriptor, Co-occurrence Texture Descriptor, Unbalanced Data Set Problem.

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Experimental Study of Problem of Estrangement of AR. Drone Four Rotor Helicopter Velocity Parameter Calculated by the Internal IMU

AbstractFor four rotor helicopter system, the velocity parameter is important for stable real-time control, and the velocity is calculated by the IMU (Internal Measurement Unit) from the three-axis acceleration and gyro sensors.

Since the IMU unit developed and designed for multi-purpose use, high-frequency range of the acceleration/gyro sensors information was used for estimating the velocity and it is afraid to do overestimation of the velocity especially when the drone collision against the wall (even with a slight contact) and the impact due to blasts. The result shows that the IMU unit calculated velocity was divergent 20 times from the real velocity measured from the camera on the ceiling even when low speed contact with a wall (25 cm/sec speed). When the estimated velocity parameter would be used for the position control and stabilizing of AR. Drone helicopter, it will be necessary to consider the problem of the estrangement of the velocity to develop the drone system for inspection at infrastructure equipment such as the bridge or tunnel.

KeywordsFour rotor helicopter, AR. Drone 1.0, Velocity estimation, IMU, Investigation of bridge or tunnels.

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Wednesday, 2 August 2017

Engineering Journal: July issue 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-7, 2017 with AD Publications

Optimal Well Locations using Genetic Algorithm for Tushki Project, Western Desert, Egypt

Abstract— The well location problem is challenging due to the non-linear, discrete and often multi-modal objective function. The optimal distribution of productive well locations mitigates the groundwater productivity problem that threats the national projects in arid countries like Egypt. In this paper, a trial to mitigate this problem in Tushki National Project, south western desert, Egypt is supposed via delineating the optimal well locations and optimal pumping rates. The methodology of combination between simulation and optimization techniques is applied. The simulation outputs of groundwater flow system by Visual MODFLOW model is linked by the constructed Fortran Code for Optimal well Location using Genetic Algorithm (OLGA Code) for obtaining the optimum management of groundwater resources in this project. Two management cases are considered by running the model domain with adopted steady and transit calibrated parameters. The first management case deals with the present well locations and predicts the optimal value of the objective function (maximum pumping rate). In the second case, the optimal new well locations resulted from the OLGA Code is predicted from flexible well location with the moving well option. Also, the prediction of the future changes in both head and flow are studied in steady and transient states.

Keywords Groundwater, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Tushki project.

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Numerical treatment and Global Error Estimation of a MHD Flows of an Oldroyd 6-Constant Nano-Fluid through a non-Darcy Porous medium with Heat and Mass Transfer

Abstract Explicit Finite-Difference method was used to obtain the solution of the system of the non-linear ordinary differential equations which transform from the non-linear partial differential equations. These equations describe the steady magneto-hydrodynamic flow of an oldroyd 6-constant non-Newtonian nano-fluid through a non-Darcy porous medium with heat and mass transfer. The numerical formula of the velocity, the temperature, the concentration, and the nanoparticles concentration distributions of the problem were illustrated graphically. The effect of Darcy number Da, Forchheimer number Fs, magnetic field parameter M, local temperature Grashof number Gr, local nanoparticle Grashof Br, Prandtl number Pr, Dufour number Nd, Brownian motion parameter Nb, Thermophoresis parameter Nt, Lewis number Le, Sort number Ld, Chemical reaction parameter Rc, and Chemical reaction order m on those formula were discussed at the values of material parameters ( specially in the case of pure Coutte flow. Then, the effects of modified pressure gradients on those formulas were discussed in the case of pure Poiseuille flow and the generalized Couette flow. Also, an estimation of the global error for the numerical values of the solutions is calculated by using Zadunaisky technique.

Keywords Finite-difference method, Heat and Mass transfer, MHD flows, Non-Darcy Porous medium, Oldoryd 6-Constant non-Newtonian nano-Fluid.

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Process and Device for Generating High Purity Hydrogen Based on Hydrolysis Reaction of Aluminum Dross

Abstract-This paper presents an efficient process to generate hydrogen, using aluminum dross particles activated by mechano-chemical methods and tap water with a pH value ≥ 10.4, obtained by adding of NH3 aqueous solution 25 wt%/L. The effect of pH value and aluminum amount on hydrogen yield has been studied. For these tests pure aluminium particles and aluminum dross were employed, and SEM analysis was used to study the changes in surface properties of metal occurring due to metal hydrolysis and hydrogen release. The obtained results show that the rate of hydrogen generation increases with the increasing of pH value and aluminum quantity. A hydrogen continuous device was designed and operated. The economical and environmental key aspects associated with the production of hydrogen, using Al dross, are discussed. The data obtained in this research can provide the basis for scale implementation of the aluminum dross hydrolysis process to generate H2 of high purity (>99.5 vol.%).

Keywords: aluminum dross; aluminum-water reaction; hydrogen generating; tap water; mechano-chemical activation;

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Temperature Distribution and Numerical Modeling of Heat Transfer in Block 276 P1-Sand – Part I

Abstract Eugene Island (EI) 276 fields presents an interesting case study of overpressure caused by uncompacted porosity, in addition to heat. Mechanics of sand deposition, transgressive shale, surrounding faults, overlying shale barriers and underlying salt diapirs have caused temperature anomalies in the P1-sand. Plio-Pleistocene sandstone reservoirs are supplied with mature hydrocarbons by migration of fluids from overpressured shales upwards along an active fault system. The heat carried by climbing fluids and the existence of highly conductive salt diapirs generate strong temperature variances disturbing the entire mini-basin. A COMSOL Multiphysics thermal simulation model has been developed to duplicate temperature variation in well #12, drilled in the proximity of a fault and a salt diapir. Recorded temperatures show a variation in the order of 42 oF across a shale barrier separating the reservoir from top formation. Heat conduction originating from the salt dome was found to be the dominant heat transfer mechanism, transgressive shale and shale barriers contributed to entrapment and led to overheating.

Keywords Eugine Island, thermal analysis, heat transfer, temperature distribution.

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Analytical Study on RC Framed Structures on effect of Performance of Different types of Piles in Seismic Region

Abstract-This thesis includes Analytical Study on RC Framed Structures on effect of Performance of Pile Foundation in Seismic Region. For our design section of a RC framed residential high rise building we are comparing mass irregularities and vertical irregularities with respect to Time period, Frequency, Displacement, Storey Drift Ratio and Storey Shear for Friction pile and End Bearing Pile.

Keywords- End Bearing Pile, Friction Pile, Mass Irregularity, Pile Foundation, Vertical irregularity.

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Numerical Investigation of Over pressure Causes in Eugene Island P1 Sand – Part II

Abstract Eugene Initial reservoir pressures from well test information were found to be higher than the calculated hydrostatic pressures. Three wells in Block 276 P1-sand had higher observed pressures than what was expected, implying pore pressures greater than anticipated. It is thought that under compaction in shaly sand and thermal dissipation from salt diapirs are the main reasons causing over pressurization. Both effects have been studied and under compaction was found to be the dominant mechanism causing pore overpressure. Transgressive shale in P1-sand, resulting from ocean transgression, acted as plastic barriers; thereby, negating the transfer of lithostatic load to deeper formations. This has resulted in constant porosities with respect to depth. A developed COMSOL multiphysics model has also indicated that temperature effects from underlying salt diapers have also affected pore pressure and that pore over pressurization by conduction was found to range from 3 – 15%.

Keywords Eugine Island, transgressive shale, over pressure.

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A Study on Seismic Response of an Irregular Structure with Different Angle of Incidence

Abstract Earthquakes are a natural calamity, feared by most and cause great destruction in and around the seismic zone where they occur. In seismic design of buildings, the earthquake motions are considered in principle directions of building which may not be true in all cases. The present study is focused on the earthquake incidence angle and its effect on the structure’s column axial force and to obtain the critical angle using Non Linear Time History Analysis. A set of values from 0 to 90 degrees, with an increment of 10 degrees, have been used for angle of excitation. An asymmetrical structure of 10 storeys was considered. It can see that the critical angle may vary the column axial force from column to column. The models are analysed using ETABS 15 software. The structural parameters such as column axial force, displacement and story shear in columns are studied. The paper concludes that the internal forces of structural elements depend on the angle of incidence of seismic wave data. There are different critical angles for different parameters, not necessarily that it should be the same of the column axial force.

Keywords Incidence angle, Non Linear Time History, Column axial force, Displacement, Story shear.

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Analysis and Comparative Study of Unbonded Post-tensioned Cast-In-Place Parking Floor on the Effects of Tendon Layout using Safe

Abstract In recent years post-tensioned floors are commonly used for parking purposes in residential and commercial high rise buildings. This paper includes result on a study of un-bonded post tensioned cast-in-place parking floor subjected to various arrangements of tendon layout based on FEM analysis. Modelling and analysis of post-tensioned flat plate is done by using SAFE software. Equivalent loads based on cable profiles are applied to the flat plate according to the tendon layout. Design moments, service moments, hyper-static moments, short term deflection, long term deflection, and punching shear are compared for the various tendon layouts at service and ultimate limit state.

Keywords Post-Tensioned flat plate, SAFE, Tendons.

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Kinematic Surface Generated by an Equiform Motion of Astroid Curve

Abstract In this paper, a kinematic surface using equiform motion of an astroid curve in Euclidean 3-space E3 is generated. The main results given in this paper: the surface foliated by equiform motion of astroid curve has a constant Gaussian and mean curvatures if motion of astroids is in parallel planes. Also, the geodesic curves on this surface are obtained. Additionally, special Weingarten of such surface is investigated. Finally, for some special cases new examples are constructed and plotted.

2010 Mathematics subject classification:53A10, 53A04, 53C22 and 53A17.

Keywords Kinematic surfaces; equiform motion; Gaussian, mean and geodesic curvatures, Weingarten Surfaces.

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Engineering Journal: June Issue 2017

Numerical Calculation and Analysis of the Normal Relationship of the Dual-Frequency Altimeter Backscatter Coefficient

AbstractTo improve effectively sea surface wind speed retrieval accuracy when it is raining, it is very interesting to find out a more accurate normal relationship between Ku band backscatter coefficient s0ku and C band backscatter coefficient s0c for a dual frequency altimeter (13.58GHz/5.25GHz). In this paper an electromagnetic scattering model with a rough surface profiles is established. In terms of the established rough sea surface model s0ku and s0c are calculated by electromagnetic numerical methods of method of moment (MOM) and Kirchhoff approximatation (KA) when the rms of the rough surface is various. The simulation results are in a good agreement by these two different methods: MOM and KA. Those calculated results show that the relationship between s0ku and s0c obtained by calculating electromagnetic scattering from Gaussian random rough sea surface profiles exists positive differences from the normal relationships while those obtained by calculating electromagnetic scattering from Exponential rough sea surface profiles exist negative differences from thoses. It is obvious that the calculated relationship can be in a good agreement with an empirical normal relationship by adjusting compositions of those ocean spectrums. It is a good way to find out the normal relationship between s0ku and s0c by theoretical calculation and analysis, and also is an effective way to study the ocean spectrum and sea states.

Keywords Dual frequency altimeter, Normal relationship, Backscatter coefficient, MOM, KA.

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Hydration kinetics of calcium sulphate hemihydrate modified by water-soluble polymers

Abstract Pastes based on gypsum (calcium sulphate hemihydrate) and two chosen water-soluble polymer admixtures, i.e. hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose (HEMC) and poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAC) were prepared. The impacts of the polymers on gypsum setting, as well as thermal and mechanical properties were studied. Heat effect and the rate of setting depending on water to gypsum ratio and the presence of admixtures were measured. The results have shown a strong effect of the polymer admixture (1%) on the prolongation of gypsum setting time. The presence of polymer molecules in water solution hinders the crystallization process of gypsum dihydrate. HEMC and PVAC have also a significant influence on gypsum mechanical properties especially at low water content. Kinetics of the setting process of gypsum hemihydrate is discussed.

Keywords admixture, gypsum, heat of hydration/crystallization, hydroxyethylmethyl cellulose, poly(vinyl acetate), setting.

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A new novel crosslinker with space structure for low-polymer-loading fracturing fluid

Abstract Boron-based crosslinkers are used commonly to increase viscosity and to improve fluid-loss control and proppant transportability of guar and its derivative fluids. Boron crosslinkers are usually preferred because of their ability to reheal after shearing and their favorable environmental properties. In order to reduce both the formation and the proppant-pack damage from polymer residues and to reduce over-all fluid cost, more-efficient crosslinkers capable of crosslinking fluids with reduced polymer loading is of great interest. Previous studies demonstrated that polymer solutions have critical overlap concentration (C*), below which no intermolecular crosslinking leading to increased viscosity can occur. However, recent studies demonstrated that increased crosslinker size or length can lead to the crosslinking of polymer solutions well lower than the C* and can reduce polymer loading without compromising the rheology of the fracturing fluid.

This paper shows the effect of new crosslinkers with space structure capable of interacting with multiple poly-saccharide strands to form crosslinking networks at lower polymer loadings than conventional guar fluids. The crosslinker is formed by the reaction of boric acid and a Polyamine with six-member ring to improve the spatial structure. The formation procedures of the new crosslinker by Boric and six-member Polyamine is very simple, and the synthetic condition is also very mild. The concentration of guar fluid with this new crosslinkers can be reduced by 30%. In addition, the crosslinker reacted with glucose to improve the control of the fluid-viscosity buildup can make the product fit into broader applications. The time of the fluid-viscosity buildup ranges from 15 to 180s. The pH value is very important to the heat resistance characteristics of the fracturing liquid system, the heat resistance characteristics increase with the increase NaOH loading. The polymer residual of the new fracturing system with new crosslinkers is much lower than that with conventional crosslinkers because of the low polymer loading. The cost of new crosslinkers is low because of the low price of raw material and the simple formation procedure and the mild synthetic condition, which is very important for extensive used in the oil field.

Keywords Cross linker Boric acid, Polyamine space structure.

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ECC-based User Authentication Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract In 2016, Akansha S. et al. proposed an upgraded user authentication protocol. According to the implemented cryptanalysis on their scheme, some vulnerabilities have been found in registration and authentication part. In registra-tion part, the gateway uses generated value as secrecy and sends it to sensor node, which doesn’t have infor-mation about received secret value and cannot verify its identity. In authentication part, user is unable to check legiti-macy of received session key generated by sensor node. Mainly, the protocol has been implemented using only one way hash function, XOR and concatenation operations, which is not adequate to provide authentication and confidentiality. In this paper, we suggest ECC-based user authentication scheme for WSNs, which eliminates the drawbacks of the previous scheme. The protocol decreases the high cost public-key operations of the sensor node and substitutes them with symmetric-key based operations.

KeywordsAuthentication, Cryptography, Key agreement, Network security, WSN.

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Utilization of bottle caps in concrete

Abstract Advances in technology enhance human comforts and in the same time damages the environment. Plastic used as cap for containers preserve liquids in the bottles very well, but the disposal of caps particularly bottle caps which harmful to environmental. Hence an attempt has been made in the present investigations to study the influence of addition of waste materials like soft drink bottle caps dosage of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% & 20% of total weight of coarse aggregate as fibers. M25 grade of concrete was produced by replacing coarse aggregate by plastic bottle caps. In this investigation caps were cut into strips. Experimental investigation was carried out adding bottle caps in concrete and tests were carried out as per recommended procedures by relevant codes. Split tensile strength increases with increase of bottle caps. Split tensile and flexural strength of 5.0 % bottle cap fiber concrete increase up to 1.72% and 13.23 % more than plain concrete(without bottle cap plastic) respectively.

Keywords plastic bottle caps, compressive strength, course aggregate, split tensile strength , flexural test.

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Switching System, a Zero Power Standby Solution

Abstract— This paper describes a novel standby system. The actual power consumption in standby mode is zero Watts. In this standby system the appliance is completely disconnected from it mains supply during standby mode. In addition from saving on electricity costs, it also has the added benefit of preventing hazardous situations whilst in standby mode. This novel standby system will set a new goal for manufacturers of consumer products to achieve.

Keywords Energy efficiency, energy harvesting, green design, standby, zero power.

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Kinetic modeling of Immobilized Yeast Batch Fermentation

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to choose the best model that will be further refined and used for controlling batch fermentation process using immobilised yeast cell in order to increase its productivity. This study investigated the immobilized Saccharomyces Carlsbergensis growth kinetics, ethanol productivity and substrate consumption (glucose) using computer simulation for different kinetic models, Monod, Contois, Teisser and other models which present the substrate and product inhibition. Batch fermentations take place with different cell density comparing immobilized yeast fermentation performance with free yeast. For each batch were evaluated kinetic parameters and after mathematical models. We have used three linearization models for estimation of kinetic parameters. Conclusions about the influence of cell immobilization on the fermentation performance were drawn based on analysis of the obtained model parameters. It was found that in some fermentation Monod and Teisser models were the most appropriate. For substrate and product inhibition the most approximate models were exponential.

Keywords Immobilization, inhibition, kinetic parameters, linearization, modeling.

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Water Chemistry Management toward Corrosion for Secondary Cooling Piping of Multi Purpose Reactor GA Siwabessy Indonesia

Abstract The experimental of inhibitor, oxy and non oxy biocide effectiveness on suppressing the carbon steel by using the secondary water cooling system of RSG GAS was done. The observed parameter are corrosion rate, dissolved oxygen concentration , pH and conductivity. The variation concentration of inhibitor, oxy and non oxy biocide was applied. The corrosion rate and dissolved oxygen are measured by using Gamry electrochemical instrument, pH-meter and oxygenmeter, respectively. Whole experiment was carried out at room temperature. Speciment test is carbon steel with diameter of 16 mm and thickness of 8 mm, with the exposed are of 1cm2, polished by grid 220 up to 2000. The variation concentration was applied for all chemicals up to 60 ppm. From the experiment it is known that the rate corrosion is suppressed by the addition of inhibitor, higher concentration inhibitor will suppress much more. This phenomenon is strongly understandable by the experimental data that shows dissolved oxygen decreasement due to the presence of inhibitor. The higher concentration of inhibitor cause the lower dissolved oxygen concentration. No pH change observed which is means that the inhibitor does not give any contribution on releasing H+ or OH- that causing pH changing. The addition of oxy biocide suppress corrosion rate from 0.7±0.02 mils/yr to 0.5± 0.02 mils/yr. However, non oxy biocide addition does not give any significant effect.

Keywords rate corrosion, inhibitor, oxy biocide, non oxy biocide.

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Haze Removal Using Color Attenuation Prior With Varying Scattering Coefficients

Abstract This paper deals with removal of haze using color attenuation prior. It will helps for dehazing single image. For dehazing linear model is used. It is based on atmospheric scattering model. In this technique saturation and brightness values of an image is considered. It is less time consuming algorithm and also it has greater dehazing effects. Also varying scattering coefficient is used for dehazing purpose. With the depth map of the hazy image, we can smoothly surmise the transmission and give back the scene radiance via the atmospheric scattering model, and thus effectively remove the haze from a single image. It can implement very easily.

Keywords Color attenuation prior, Scattering model, Linear model, Varying Scattering Matrix.

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Additive Manufacturing of PE/Fluorouracil Waffles for Implantable Drug Delivery in Bone Cancer Treatment

Abstract In this study, implantable polyethylene/fluorouracil waffles were additively manufactured by selective laser sintering using different laser energy densities. SEM-EDS revealed a porous morphology for both PE and PE/FU waffles. High dispersion of fluorouracil particles were observed in samples prepared under different conditions. The PE/FU waffles manufactured at 5W had the highest flexural modulus, probably due to better PE particle coalescence, higher sinter degree and the dispersion of FU particles in the co-continuous porous PE matrix. The PE/FU waffles showed an initial burst as well as a rapid drug released, which are desirable characteristics for cancer treatment. This profile provides a high initial concentration of the drug in the cancer cells and a subsequent controlled release sustaining levels of the chemotherapeutic agent in the region of the bone tumor.

Keywords Polyethylene/fluorouracil, Implantable drug delivery, Cancer treatment, Selective laser sintering.

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Engineering Journal : May issue 2017

Design, Construction and Testing of a Hybrid Photovoltaic (PV) Solar Dryer

Abstract A hybrid photovoltaic solar dryer was designed, constructed and tested in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria. The thin layer drying behaviour of tomato slices using a hybrid drying method compared to solar and open sun drying was investigated. The dryer consists of solar collector, photovoltaic solar panel, battery and drying chamber. The dryer was operated as both a solar-energy dryer and as a hybrid solar dryer. The drying performance of the dryer was evaluated with fresh tomato slice and compared with open sun drying under the same climatic conditions. The dryer recorded a raised temperature of 62℃ attainable in the drying chamber of hybrid dryer and 54oC attainable in the drying chamber of solar dryer. The moisture content of tomato slices was reduced from 94.22 % wet basis to 10 % in 6 hours for hybrid drying method while it took 9 hours to achieve the same moisture content reduction in the solar dryer. The average drying rate and the efficiency was computed as 0.0800kg/h and 71% for hybrid dryer and 0.0578kg/h and 65% for solar-energy dryer respectively. The quality of the tomato samples dried using the hybrid dryer was superior to those of solar and sun drying methods. From the result of this study it shows that a hybrid solar-energy dryer using photovoltaic (PV) solar panel suggested a promising process for adoption to preserve tomato which can prevent it from spoilage and post-harvest losses. The good quality and shelf stable dried tomato slices is indicative for a sustainable productivity that will create a sound avenue for economic growth in tomato producing regions of the world.
Keywords design, hybrid dryer, photovoltaic solar panel, solar dryer and tomatoes.
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Design and Development of Arduino based Automatic Soil Moisture Monitoring System for Optimum use of Water in Agricultural Fields

Abstract The research aim was to the study the intelligent soil moisture control system in agricultural green house based on Adriano Uno microcontroller automation control. This kind of intelligent soil moisture control system helps to control the moisture level of the field and supply the water if required. In this research embedding a control system into an automatic water pump controller depend upon the moisture of the soil. This system also ability to detect the level of methane gas in the green house. The intelligent soil moisture control system in agricultural green house designed in the research had wonderful effort of man-machine interface, it is very simple, cheep and convenient high degree of automation system. Not only that this system helps to prevent wastage of water. This system is a prototype, which makes this self-sufficient, watering itself from a reservoir. Solar energy is used in this system makes it more environment friendly.
Keywords ATmega328p microcontroller, temperature sensor, methane sensor, soil moisture sensor , solar cell, DC Motor. L293D Motor Driver.
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Assessing Workers Safety Management Knowledge on Construction Site

Abstract Safety management is associated with the policies, objectives, procedures, methods, roles and functions that aim at controlling hazard and risk in socio-technical systems. Companies that have implemented effective OSH Management system have reported benefit from increase operational efficiency, reduction in insurance cost and improve in workers retention and satisfaction. Many accidents that occur at construction site are due inadequate adherence of workers to work procedures. The awareness and perception of workers toward safety, health and their working environment are important aspect to enhance the building construction to the better condition to the workers. Workers play an important role in accomplishment of the building construction. All these supporting evidence reflects on the needs to study building construction workers knowledge of safety management system. The study is a criteria – based study, in which 24 construction companies were selected for the study The respondent samples used in the study were drawn from the total population of permanent construction workers in the 24 construction companies selected. The total numbers of permanent construction workers in the 24 construction companies are 750 while 254 were selected for the study. The research questionnaires were administered on 254 permanent construction workers within the 24 construction companies in Abuja. The analysis of the questionnaires survey data was undertaken using the statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. A reliability test was conducted on the data in order to control error within the data. The Cronbach’s Alpha of the two variable data are .853 and .863 respectively and make the data reliable. Correlation analysis was conducted in order to determine the relationship between worker’s general knowledge and worker’s safety management knowledge and the result was found to be significant (P<0.005). This relationship was modelled using simple linear regression and from the model the result shows that improvement on the worker’s safety management system knowledge practice on sites will improves general knowledge among construction workers. Therefore, workers’ knowledge of safety management systems significantly influences the overall benefits of safety management system on the construction sites. As such there is need for potential improvement on the knowledge or awareness of the workers to safety management system as perceived from the analysis in order to bring about the expected high performance standard on construction sites.
Keywords Safety Management, Knowledge, Workers, Construction Sites, Improvement.
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Correlation between Destructive Compressive Testing (DT) and Non Destructive Testing (NDT) for Concrete Strength

Abstract Concrete is the most widely used construction material worldwide. Strength of a concrete structure may have to be assessed without causing physical damage to it, due to various reasons like its monumental importance or the legal dispute on whether the strength of the concrete in the structure is satisfactory enough or not. In an attempt to meet the above demand, correlation and comparison between Destructive Test (DT) and Non Destructive Test (NDT) were carried out.
A total of 24 concrete cubes (150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm) were cast with concrete mix ratio of 1:2:4. 12 cubes were tested destructively for compressive strength with compression machine and 12 cubes were also tested non-destructively with Schmidt Rebound Hammer. Compressive strength test results at curing ages (7, 14, 21 and 28days.) were collated and analysed.
The results obtained from the non-destructive testing method were correlated with the results obtained from destructive testing method. The coefficient of correlation between the two set of compressive strength was 0.988 which indicates a perfect relationship between compressive strength results from both methods.
Keywords Compressive Strength, Non Destructive test, Destructive Compression test, Schmidt Rebound Hammer.
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Income Structure, Profitability and Stability in the Tunisian Banking Sector

Abstract— This study examines the effect of revenue diversification across and within interest and non-interest income on bank stability and performance in Tunisian banks over the period 2001-2014. Using panel estimations and instrumental variables approach to handle the endogeneity problem of diversification variables. We find that revenue diversifications among and within interest and non-interest revenue generating operations boost bank profitability and stability. Our findings suggest also that the benefits from diversification are largest for banks with more shifts to nontraditional banking business lines (investment banking) while, absent for banks which follow cross-selling strategies of financial services.
Keywords— bank performance, bank stability, interest income, non-interest income, Tunisian Banks.
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Effect of Twisted Tape Insert On Heat Transfer During Flow Through A Pipe Using CFD

Abstract The effect of nanoparticles on the performance of nanofluids during flow through pipes with dual twisted tape inserts. A detailed literature survey on the use of twisted tape inserts and computation thermal properties of nanofluids is presented. Expressions for nanofluid thermal properties computation are discussed. Properties for Al2O3 and TiO2 nanofluid with volume fraction of 0.1 are computed. CFD simulations to study the behaviour of fluid during heat transfer when flowing through pipes with dual twisted tape inserts. Results of these simulations are discussed in the paper.
Keywords nanofluid, CFD, Twisted Tape Inserts, Al2O3 nanofluid, TiO2 nanofluid.
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Design, Sizing and Implementation of a PV System for Powering a Living Room

Abstract This paper aims to design size and implement a Photo Voltaic system (PV system) for powering a living room. The required load to be powered by the PV system is completely determined. A comparison between using normal and power saving loads is carried out. The power saving loads is chosen to reduce the overall cost of the required system. The proposed PV system for powering the predetermined load is introduced. Each part of the system is designed and sized based on the load requirement. Finally, the practical implementation for the overall PV system for powering the required load is done. The implemented system works in an efficient way.
Keywords— Design, Sizing, Implementation, PV system.
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Compared of Surface Roughness Nitride Layers formed on Carbon and Low Alloy steel

Abstract A comprehensive study of fluidized bed nitriding was performance on a carbon steel (grade AISI St 41) and low alloy steel (grade AISI 4140) at 550 0C in 20 % N2 and 80 % NH3 atmosphere at a flow rate gasses of 0.7 m3/hr. Various surface roughness were used to incorporate nitrogen into these steels. The nitride layer formed at AISI 4140 showed better surface roughness and surface hardness than AISI St 41. With low chromium alloy (grade AISI 4140), nitrogen diffusion is more uniform in the lower surface roughness after nitriding process. It has been found that the surface microhardness of the compound layer increases with decreasing surface roughness and chromium alloy contents. The layer nitride has a decrease surface roughness ranging from 50 % at 0,1 µm to about 17 % at 0,5 µm. On the contrary, the carbon steel without chromium alloy (grade AISI St 41) sample show an enhance surface roughness between 1.3 to 2.5 times after nitriding process, but on 0.5 µm surface roughness sample show a decrease surface roughness of about 10%. All sample show an enhanced surface microhardness after nitriding significantly. Chromium alloy is found to enhanced the nitriding efficiency. Without chromium in the steel, a lower surface roughness provides a supplementary amount of implanted nitrogen available for further diffusion, and the uniform of the surface passive oxide. So, with limited surface roughness, more uniform layers with higher amounts of nitrogen can be achieved by low chromium alloy. However, with limited solubility of nitrogen atom in α-Fe into iron nitride form, the nitrogen becomes supersaturated reaction and nitride layer is more brittle and porosity. It is can be ascribed to the nitrogen solubility in the nitride layer, which at AISI St 41 is higher due to the formation of porosity phase while at AISI 4140 a phase rich in nitrogen (ϒand ε phases) is formed.
Keywords roughness, fluidized bed, nitride layers, microstructures, SEM.
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The influence of impregnating chemicals on the carbonization process of viscose fiber cloths

Abstract The influence of some chemical impregnating such as polyphosphate urea, ZnCl2, AlCl3, FeCl3, H2NaPO4, H3PO4 on the carbonization process of viscose fiber cloth at the temperature range from 30 to 700 0C was studied in detail. By the thermalgravimetric analysis, the obtained results have showed that the presence of these chemical impreganating agents caused lowering the activation energy and increasing the carbonization viscose mass left at 7000C. The polyphosphate urea was proven to be a good chemical agent for the carbonization process.
Keywords Viscose fiber, TGA, carbonization process.
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Hand Gesture Recognition from Surveillance Video Using Surf Feature

Abstract The Sign language is very important for people who have hearing and speaking deficiency. It is the only mode of communication for such people to convey their messages. In this paper, a feature detection scheme is introduced called SURF, which stands for Speeded Up Robust Features. The real time images will be captured first and then stored in directory and on recently captured image and feature extraction will take place to identify which sign has been articulated by the user through SURF algorithm. A Text to Speech conversion is also included in this project. An experimental result shows that the proposed approach performs well with low time.
Keywords speeded up robust feature, Convolutional neural network, Text to speech, Deep dynamic neural network.
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Antibacterial peptides from thermophilic bacteria

Abstract It is becoming interestingly apparent that innovations of the classical antibiotics are not effective, that induces need for novel drugs. Peptide antibiotics exhibit a group of secondary metabolites with hydrophobic and cyclic structures containing d-amino acidc like compounds with more resistant to proteolytic degradation. Bacterial peptides can possess bactericidal, fungicidal, metal chelating and immunomodulation activities. Several bacteriocins are active as food preservation, resulting in foods with more naturally preserved and rich in nutritional properties. Antimicrobial peptides used against infections are isolated mainly from mesophilic bacterial species. Novel antibacterial peptides from thermophilic species are more stable at higher temperatures and pH, and can be improved by variation of cultivation conditions. These cells can growth either autotrophically or heterotrophically. Under mixotrophic conditions can utilize pyruvate or hydrogen with thiosulfate. The present review provides a general overview on primary structure of selected antibiotic peptides and their potential for industrial purposes as well as environmental and biotechnological applications.
Keywords antibacterial peptides, novel drugs, metabolites, hydrophobic structure, immunomodulation.
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Optimized Coverage and Efficient Load Balancing Algorithm for WSNs-A Survey

Abstract— Major challenge in field of wireless sensor networks (WSN) is to provide full coverage of a sensing field and connectivity of relaying nodes. Many applications—such as object tracking, healthcare, natural environment protection and battlefield intrusion detection —requires the full coverage at any time. Load balancing aims to optimize resource use, maximize throughput, minimize response time, and avoid overload of any single resource. In this paper we are over viewing techniques which are used in WSN for load balancing. The maximum cover tree (MCT) difficulty is to construct several connected cover trees and difficult in Nondeterministic Polynomial (NP)-Complete problem, Ant colony based scheduling Algorithm (ACB-SA) can used to solve the efficient coverage problem but it has time delay as drawback, And Temperature aware Algorithms that seek to save energy but the implementation is complex. In order to mitigate limitations above, Novel maximum connected load-balancing cover tree (MCLCT) algorithm is proposed and it is composed by two sub strategies: a coverage-optimizing recursive (COR) heuristic and a probabilistic load-balancing (PLB) method. This Algorithm provides the better coverage and connectivity among others which is presented as a result of this survey. Simulation results show the output in terms of energy efficiency and connectivity maintenance.
Keywords— wireless sensor networks, Coverage / connectivity preservation, scheduling, lifetime maximization.
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Engineering Journal: August Issue 2017

Performance Analysis of Regular and Irregular Structure Under Seismic Effect for RCC and Steel Composite Column Using Response Spectrum Ab...