Tuesday, 5 December 2017

Engineering Journal: November issue 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-11, November 2017 with AD Publications

MATLAB-Based Stochastic Modeling Distribution Analysis of Commercial Fishery Length-Frequency Samples Taken From the Black Sea (Bulgaria)

Abstract Fish stock assessment procedure is initially based on the assumption that the frequencies in length/weight-frequency samples used for analysis of the stock status follow approximately the normal distribution. Many of the statistical procedures are based on specific distributional assumptions. The assumption of normality is very common in most classical statistical tests. In case that analysis of data implies techniques that make normality or some other distributional assumptions it is essential that this assumption is confirmed. If distributional assumption is proved, more powerful parametric techniques can be applied and if it is not justified an application of non-parametric or robust techniques may be required.

The present article aims to present MATLAB-based algorithm for commercial fisheries length-frequency samples distribution analysis of samples of Sprat and Anchovy caught in the Bulgarian waters in the Black sea. The statistical analysis uses engineering approaches in statistical data processing and the method used for analysis of sample frequencies distribution is chi-square normality or goodness of fit test. For the provision of this analysis, specific program is developed in MATLAB programming environment to support and confirm the assumption that length-frequency samples follow the normal distribution.

Keywords MATLAB, fisheries, normal distribution, length-frequency samples, stock assessment, chi-square normality test.

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Experimental Study of Hardness Measurement affected by a Cushion between Probe and PTF Pressure sensor

AbstractIn this paper, experimental study of hardness measurement process affected by a cushion between the probe and PTF (polymer thick film) pressure sensor was discussed. Hardness sensing for soft material has been one of the important problems in many fields such as foods industry and material science. One difficulty is how to measure the weak contacting force (0.1 to few N)stable with the small target deformation by low-cost force sensor such as PTF, and we found the result of the measurement stability depending on a cushion between the probe and PTF sensor. The result shows that (1) the output force value depends on the kind of cushion material (plastic, urethane, rubber, styrene elastomer, etc.), (2) the force value was affected by the sensor probe angle to the target material. This result would be useful to develop and study the hardness sensing process intending to reduce the target deformation.

KeywordsHardness measurement, soft material, cushion, PTF sensor.

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A novel study on the degradation of styphnic acid from water by cold plasma technology

Abstract Cold plasma technology exhibits many advantages in practical application. Due to these reasons the use of cold plasma technology for environmental treatment is receiving great attention. Here a novel study on the degradation of styphnic acid from water by cold plasma technology has been presented in detail, such as establishment of cold plasma reactor structure, determination of efficiency in degradation of styphnic acid by cold plasma radiation under different experimental conditions. The obtained results have shown that cold plasma might be used for degrade styphnic acid with high efficiency.

Keywords cold plasma, degradation, acid styphnic.

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Preparation of Oligo (Hexene-1-So-Indenes) and Investigation of Its Products as Additives to Oils

Abstract It has been carried out the copolymerization reactions of hexene-1 and indene with participation of BF3·O(C2H5)2 as the catalyst, the yield, the composition, the structure, the copolymerization constant and the average molecular weight values depending on cooligomerization condition have been determined. It has been shown that a location of links in the prepared cooligomers has a statistic character, but the blocks organized by molecules of hexene-1 may be included. Thermal stability of the synthesized cooligomers of hexene-1-indene has been investigated both individually and in fatty solution and it has been elucidated that an increase of a quantity of indene links in cooligomer composition leads to increase of thermal stability and an increase of the molecular weight decreases a thermal stability. An inclusion of the synthesized cooligomers in composition of M-6 oil as synthetic component increases a viscosity index value and gives it anticorrosion property.

Keywords hexene-1, indene, viscosity-temperature additives.

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Linear Quadratic Regulator Procedure and Symmetric Root Locus Relationship Analysis

Abstract The present paper is focused on linear quadratic regulator (LQR) synthesis. It is evident that the solution of the problem leads to finding a solution of symmetric root locus (SRL) problem. It is proven and analytical evidences is also presented that by using SRL synthesis method and further application of LQR method guarantees stability, minimum phase and gain margins of the closed loop system. The presented mathematical relationships are further proven with experimental investigation in MATLAB programming environment.

Keywords linear quadratic regulator, minimum phase system, Riccati equation, stability, state space, symmetric root locus.

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Validation and Integrity Mechanism for Web Application Security

AbstractRecently the world of web applications has witnessed a huge wave of attacks that caused a lot of web applications to get defaced and for a lot of businesses to lose financially and to lose the integrity between those companies and their users .since web hacking became common knowledge on the Internet and most of the defacements that happens on daily basis are going under a random way, the security specialists are trying to get new solutions that will help reduce the possibility of causing much damage to web applications even after the process of infiltration.

In this research an enhanced web application solution was proposed, which is a validation and integrity component that can be easily installed on any web application firewall (WAF), in order to help in solving the problem mentioned and raise the level of trust between user's and web application hosts/owners also restore the lost data caused by hacking attempts in simple and systematic way.

KeywordsAttack Prevention, Application Firewall, Cyber security, Firewall component, Internet Attacks.

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Adaptive State Observer Synthesis Based On Instrumental Variables Method

Abstract The present paper presents non-recurrent adaptive observation algorithm for SISO linear time-invariant discrete systems. The algorithm is based on the instrumental variables method and the adaptive state observer estimates the parameters, the initial and the current state vectors of discrete systems. The algorithm workability is proved by using simulation data in the MATLAB/Simulink environment.

Keywords adaptive observation, discrete adaptive state observer, non-recurrent algorithm, initial and current state vector estimation.

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Design of Alternative Automatic Transmission for Electric Mopeds

Abstract The number of automobiles has seen an alarming rise in the recent years. In the year 2014, the number of road vehicles produced annually increased to 87.23 million vehicles from around 40 million in 2000. This shows that production has increased to more than twice the volume in only 14 years. This has also caused a rise in the pollution levels. Global CO2 levels are on the rise due to increased pollution, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Hence it is very important to reduce our dependency on gasoline driven vehicles. Electric vehicles are a good alternative to these. The advent of electric vehicles is marred by factors like unavailability of charging stations and most importantly not being able to match the performance parameters offered by gasoline driven vehicles. Hence a driveline setup has been designed to increase the performance parameters like gradeability and top speed of an electric moped to set it at par with the gasoline powered mopeds available on the market. In this report we will focus on the design considerations, working principle and the mechanism for the said driveline as well as the design calculations and the CAD model.

Keywords automatic, centrifugal clutch, drive train, electric vehicles, freewheel, mopeds, transmission.

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Ignition Behavior of Al/Fe2O3 Metastable Intermolecular Composites

Abstract Nano size Al/Fe2O3 thermite system has been reported in the literature as metastable intermolecular composites (MIC). Nano Al/nano Fe2O3 MIC has been prepared in various proportions by ultrasonic method. A comparative study on heat output and thermal behavior has been made on MIC using DTA (Differential Thermal Analysis), STA (Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer) and bomb calorimeter. It has been observed that nano-size ingredients produce more heat output compared to micron size ingredients. The ignition temperature also reduces in case of MIC indicating faster release of energy at lower temperature. The impact of ignition of nano-thermite has been reported based on ignition DTA experiment. DTA analysis also shows complete reaction in case of MIC where as micron size thermite showed an endothermic peak of Al melting indicating incomplete reaction. The PXRD (Powder X-Ray Diffraction) data of combustion products has been used to establish the combustion mechanism of MIC. The activation energy of MIC has been calculated using Kissinger, Ozawa and Starink kinetic equations and compared with literature reported values.

Keywords MIC, combustion kinetics, heat output, STA, DTA.

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Contact angle measurements with constant drop volume. Control of wettability of some materials by physico-chemical treatment

Abstract— A modified express method of contact angle measurement based on determining the diameter of a drop with a known volume has been elaborated. The method offers a number of advantages: it can be used in an express manner for in situ dynamic investigation and makes it possible to observe inhomogeneity and anisotropy of hydrophilicity. The method is convenient in comparative measurements and does not require any special equipment.

Using the proposed method, the possibility of hydrophilic control of some materials (silicate glass, TiO2 (anataze) and polymetilmetacrylate (PMMA)) by UV (ultra violet) and chloroform vapor treatment has been studied. In particular, hydrophilicity of PMMA after UV irradiation was observed, and it is shown that changes in hydrophilicity are connected with the surface oxidation of PMMA. The observed phenomenon of hydrophilicity control can be used in various technologies, such as liquid coating, printing, spray quenching, nanolithography, pharmacology and others.

Keywords Contact angle, constant drop volume, control of hydrophilicity, physico-chemical treatment, PMMA, inorganic glass, TiO2.

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Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical studies and Antibacterial activity of Wood from Talipariti elatum Sw. (Fryxell) in Cuba

Abstract A preliminary pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of Talipariti elatum (Sw.) that grows in Cubawas realized to determine the macromorphology and micromorphology characteristics, the physicochemical and phytochemical parameters from the wood of this spice that grows in Cuba. This crude drug showed the characteristic physicochemical values such as moisture content (7.6 %), total ashes (1.14%), water soluble ashes (0.19 %), acid insoluble ashes (0.33 %) and extractable matter in ethanol at 70 % (10.87 %). Phytochemical screening revealed the possible presence of triterpenes and/or steroids, reductants sugars, tannins and/or phenolic compounds, flavonoids and bitter and astringent principles, realized under WHO parameters. The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts at 30, 50 and 70 % of the wood against Salmonella tiphymurium 14028, Bacillus cereus 11778, Escherichia coli 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus 25923showed varying degrees of inhibition on the tested organisms.

Keywords Talipariti elatum, wood, pharmacognostical, phytochemical, antibacterial.

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Enlargement of Amanatun, South Central Timor Regency

Abstract South Central Timor Regency is one of the Regency within the Province of East Nusa Tenggara. It lies on 3955,36 km2 with 32 Sub-Districts and population of 459.310 people which made it as Regency with most Kecamatan (Sub-District) and most populated area in Province of East Nusa Tenggara. Thus, due it its large size, less optimum service of regional government regarding might occur. One solution offered for this issue was regional enlargement, which become the proposed enlargement of Amanatun. Amanatun was taken from the name of a kingdom during West Indies governance, which was includes in Afdeeling (Regency) South Central Timor. This proposition of Amanatun enlargement was having its own background that became the trigger and objectives of the people who desire this enlargement. Objectives of this study was to discover the triggers and objectives expected from Amanatun enlargement and whether there was relationship between the trigger and objectives of Amanatun enlargement also what is the form of this enlargement according to the prevails laws and regulations. Analysis process was using Partial Least Square (PLS) and appropriateness level for enlargement was based on government regulation guidelines.

Keywords regional enlargement, trigger, objectives, relationship between effect of trigger toward objectives of enlargement, PLS, appropriateness level of enlargement based on laws and regulations.

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Parametric Analysis on Buildings with Connecting Corridors

AbstractThe architectural design of modern buildings has been highly integrated and multi-functional. Connected high-rise structures, which comprise of main towers and corridor in between at a certain height falls under the category of irregular building structure system. This thesis presents a study on the various buildings with connecting structures, under lateral loading conditions such as the seismic loads. The software ETABS was used for modeling the structure. Linear static analysis and linear dynamic analysis was conducted to analyse the models. For seismic loading, the parameters such as storey displacements, storey drifts, overturning moment, base shear, axial and bending moments in the corridor beams are studied. It is understood that each building behaved differently under seismic loads.

Keywordsbase shear, connected corridors, drift, overturning moment seismic analysis.

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Comparison of Turbulence Models in the Flow over a Backward Facing Step

AbstractThis work presents the numerical simulation and analysis of the turbulent flow over a two-dimensional channel with a backward-facing step. The computational simulation performed in this study is based on the Reynolds equations using a technique denominated Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS). The main objective of the present work is the comparison of different models of turbulence applied to the turbulent flow over a backward-facing step. The performance of each RANS model used will be discussed and compared with the results obtained through a direct numerical simulation present in the literature. The RANS turbulence models used are k-ω, k-ε, Shear Stress Transport k-ω (SST k-ω) and the second-order closure model called Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The Reynolds number used in all the numerical simulations constructed in this study is equal to 9000, based on the height of the step h and the inlet velocity Ub. The results are the reattachment length, the mean velocity profiles and the turbulence intensities profiles. The k-ε model obtained poor results in most of the analyzed variables in this study. Among the RANS turbulence models, the SST k-ω model presented the best results of reattachment length, mean velocity profile and contour when compared to results obtained in the literature. The RSM model found the best results of turbulence intensity profile, when compared to the models of two partial differential equations that use the Boussines hypothesis.

Keywordsbackward-facing step, DNS, RANS, turbulence models.

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Thursday, 9 November 2017

Engineering Journal: October Issue 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-10, October 2017 with AD Publications

TOC’S Five-Step Cycle: An Approach to Instant Results and Cultural Change

Abstract The Theory of Constraints (TOC) offers an interesting alternative to the use of management tools, in especial yours TOC cycle. Although it is an interesting alternative, only a small number of publications focus on the TOC cycle. This article aims to describe the TOC cycle and to present its application in the furniture industry, aiming to show a simplified method of your application. The approach is exploratory and descriptive, with a bibliometric analysis and case study. After finding a restricted number of publications, some of the articles were analyzed and it was possible to propose and demonstrate a simplified method for the application of the TOC. From the application of the five steps of TOC cycle, it was possible to identify and eliminate the bottlenecks. The results obtained were positive, because in less than a year the productive process presented productivity gains and a change in the organizational culture.

Keywords Theory of Constraints, Five Steps, Gain, Productivity.

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Path Planning with Smooth Curve Using Electromagnetism-like Mechanism Algorithm

Abstract In this paper, we propose a new path planning method by using an electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm. We use the different encoding method to solve trade-off problem that is encountered in the traditional path planning method. By combining different encoding method with electromagnetism-like mechanism algorithm, path point can be generated without the trade-off problem. In order to connect these points into smooth curve, we compare two path smoothing method, Bezier curve and cubic splines interpolation. Finally, cubic splines interpolation is used because it can generate smoother path.

Keywords Path Planning, Electromagnetism-like Mechanism Algorithm, Path Smoothing.

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Antioxidant Activity of gossypitrin isolated from the petals of Talipariti elatum (Sw.) Fryxell (Malvaceae) in Cuba

Abstract Talipariti elatum Sw. Fryxell (Malvaceae) is an endemic tree widely distributed in Cuba. The flowers are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of asthma. It was decided to search for any product responsible of this devoted activity. From the flower leaves (petals) it was isolated a flavonoid glycoside characterized as Gossypitrin and a sample was evaluated for its in vitro scavenging effects on reactive oxygen species (ROS) (O.-, HO., HOCl, ROO., and H2O2), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) (ONOO- and NO) and ABTS•+, DPPH. radicals and Reducing Power assay. Additionally, two enzymatic assays (Inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) and Effect on XO activity) were also evaluated. In the scavenging assays the sample showed to be not effective against all assayed ROS and RNS, and displayed a weak activity in the DPPH and Reducing Power assays, but it displayed a good activity in the ABTS•+ assay (2, 14 mM). The enzymatic assays corroborated that Gossypitrin shows a weak activity on inhibition of XO. These results provide scientific support for the empirical use of the flowers of T. elatum as an antasthmatic medicine.

KeywordsTalipariti elatum, scavenging effect, reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, antioxidant activity.

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Experimental and Finite Element Analysis of Flow Behavior of 2A14 Aluminum Alloy during Multi-directional Forging

Abstract The deformation flow behavior of 2A14 aluminum alloys during multi-directional forging (MDF) under various cumulative strains (∑Δɛ) has been investigated by combining experiment with finite element method (FEM). The forging process has been performed at 450oC with a deformation speed of 0.15 mms-1 and a pass strain (Δɛ) of 0.4. Numerical simulations of MDF using a commercial software (DEFORM-3D), have shown that the vortex, cross-flow and fold defect of flow lines of the forgings do not occur during deformation, and the degree of bent and inhomogeneity of flow lines also increase steadily with ∑Δɛ increases. The FEM analysis coincides well with experimental results. The effective strain in various areas of the forgings has been significantly enhanced during MDF. The dynamic recovery is dominant during deformation. The proportion of recrystallized grains and the degree of fragmentation of second phases in various areas of the annealed forgings increase with the increase of effective strain.

Keywords 2A14 aluminum alloy, Multi-directional forging, Flow behavior, Effective strain, DEFORM-3D.

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Investigation of Formation Laws of Clays Composition under High Pressures

Abstract It is found experimentally, that while building-up of pressure applied to natural clay, observed is general tendency of clay fraction content decrease and pulverescent fraction content increase. In montmorillonite natural clay, granulometric changes progress more intensively, than in kaolinite one. Within the pressure range of 0 – 125МPа processes of change of natural clay fractional compositions progress more intensively, than at higher pressures. Under pressures within the ranges of 125-750МPа and 800-2200МPа revealed is different intensity of natural clay fractional compositions formation. Based on pressure index, three classes are defined; each is featuring different intensity of aggregation and dispersion processes progressing. While compression of natural clay defects are formed on crystallite surfaces, increasing energy potential of crude ground. Additional energy enables formation of molecular attractive forces, which cause particles aggregation.

Keywords Clay, Pressure, Granulometric Analysis, Fraction, Kaolin, Montmorillonite.

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Analysis of Deformation Data of a Deep Foundation Pit in Karst Poor Geological Conditions

Abstract— This paper is based on a deep foundation pit project under the geological conditions of karst. The monitoring data is analyzed, and the deformation rule of the foundation pit is obtained. At the same time, the influence factors of foundation pit deformation are studied, and the relationship between the displacement of slope of foundation pit at different stages is studied. Get conclusions as following, in the excavation of the foundation pit, the different supporting forms of foundation pit have great influence on the horizontal displacement of foundation pit. The horizontal displacement deformation of slope at the excavation stage is larger, accounting for 68%~78% of total deformation. The horizontal displacement deformation of slope at the backfill stage is significantly smaller, accounting for 22%~32% of the total deformation.

Keywords Foundation pit; deformation analysis, The foundation pit monitoring, Horizontal deformation of slope top, The vertical displacement of the slope.

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Experimental of surface roughness and tool wear on coolant condition technique using Aluminium alloy 319 used in automotive industries

Abstract The present day the applications of machining part tolerances, like the automotive industries aimed to reduce the fuel consumption of their vehicle by reducing the total mass per vehicle and the method process for machining. Understanding of the interaction and significance machining parameters are important to improve the efficiency of any machining process and the accuracy part produced. The objective of this research is to analyze the machining parameters (spindle speed, depth of cut and feed rates) in a three machining conditions (dry, wet and 1.0 mm coolant nozzle size on the surface roughness and tool wear using Respond Surface Method (RSM) on the CNC Lathe machine with 2 axes movements. The synthetic soluble oils, and coated cemented carbide Al2 O3 insert were used as a workpiece material and cutting tool respectively. The result of the machining experiment for Aluminum alloy 319 was investigated to analyze the main factor affecting surface roughness using the analysis of Variance (ANOVA) method. The optimum selection of the cutting conditions effectively contributes to the increase in the productivity and reduction in the production cost; therefore almost attention is paid to this problem. In cutting process, optimization of cutting parameters is considered to be a vital tool for improvement in output quality of a product as well as reducing the overall production time. The acquired results showed that the coated cemented carbide Al2 O3 insert gives the optimum overall performance in terms of surface roughness and tool wear with the smallest orifice size coolant. The research also beneficial in minimizing the costs incurred and improving productivity of manufacturing firms using the mathematical model and equations, generated by CCD based on RSM method.

Keywords Turning, infrared, cutting temperature, coated carbide tool, Response Surface Method.

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Fabrication of 3D Thin Films by Spray Pyrolysis Method from Metal Phthalocyanines

AbstractCarbon 3D structures were obtained by spray pyrolysis using toluene solution containing suspended nickel or magnesium phthalocyanines as precursors of metallic particles serving as catalysts for carbon phase formation. The process was conducted in a range of temperatures in a quartz tube in inert atmosphere on borosilicate glass supports where the nanometric layers of nanoparticles were deposited. The samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy; their condusctivity was measured via Kelvin technique. The properties of formed nanolayers were analyzed according to metal nature in the phthalocyanine, temperature, carrier gas speed, and other process parameters. Possible MEMS applications of thus fabricated nanolayers are discussed.

Keywordscarbon nanotubes,phthalocyanines, Raman, spray pyrolysis, TEM.

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Influence of the Cooling Environment on Cutting Temperature and Specific Energy when Turning AISI 4340 Steel

AbstractTemperature monitoring and controlling is a critical aspect influencing the technical and economic success of metal cutting operations owing to the fact that it affects both the quality of the machined component and the performance of the cutting tool. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the cutting parameters on tool temperature when turning AISI 4340 steel under three cooling environments: flooding, minimal quantity lubrication and dry cutting. In addition to that, the specific cutting energy required under each cooling environment was measured using a modified impact testing machine, thus allowing the estimate of the temperature associated with the chip formation mechanism. Furthermore, it is aimed at verifying whether this test can replace force measurement using a dynamometer. The findings indicate that the lowest tool temperature was achieved under flood cooling, followed by minimum quantity lubrication and dry cutting. Inversely, lowest specific cutting energy was obtained when dry cutting, followed by minimum quantity lubrication and flooding, thus suggesting that the higher temperatures achieved under dry cutting aid the softening of the work material and the reduction of its shear strength.

KeywordsAISI 4340 steel, specific cutting energy, temperature, turning.

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A Study into the Development of More Energy Efficient and Less Polluted Fishing Vessel

Abstract The successful application of catamaran hull form as passenger carriers has been well-known since the last 30 years. It is later extended to the development of fishing vessels and the reason behind this is attributed to safety criteria and wider deck-space which can be offered by the catamaran. It is also in connection with the handicaps of monohull fishing vessels, in terms of stability and seakeeping performance which can be improved by the introduction of catamaran forms. Recent situation on the rare and expensive fossil fuels have caused the fishermen into deep trouble hence most of them tend to be deprived if there is no anticipation taken to help them. The current paper describes a systematic investigation into the way to reduce (if not possible to replace completely) the use of fossil fuels on a catamaran fishing vessel. The study is focused on the use of diesel engine, sail and solar power on individual application as well as the combination of them. The implication to the final cost of the vessel, however, is negligible. It is discovered that the use of diesel engine could be replaced by the use of sail and solar power for individual basis. A combination of those power sources is found to be more appropriate in terms of stability and capacity of fishing holds. The investigation is extended to the evaluation of energy efficiency design index (EEDI), a compulsory criterion for measuring marine pollution made by the international maritime organization (IMO) and applied for ocean-going vessels. It is considered for fishing vessels because this type of vessel is thousands in number and most of them use engine together with fossil fuels hence there is strong potency to pollute air and the environment.

Keywords Catamaran, fishing vessel, stability and seakeeping, power estimation, energy efficiency.

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Saturday, 14 October 2017

Engineering Journal: September Issue 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-9, September 2017 with AD Publications

About Modeling and Simulation of Heat Exchange Convective Surfaces of the Steam Generator

Abstract — Among the priority issues that the modern society has to be solved, include also the energy and environmental issues. The notion of control (process control) has expanded in recent years, encompassing new areas such as automatic control of quality, the data processing with decisional purpose for one strategic leadership, ensuring uninterrupted of the system maintainability and thus, security and viability of the entire ensemble. In this context are part and the simplified simulation methods of the energetic installations from the power plants. The paper expose, in the first part, the importance of the steam generator in the operation of power plants, presents the energy processes complexity, emphasizing the importance of their management and automation to increase energy efficiency of each link in the chain. Then, taking as its starting point the real operational aspects, the mathematical modeling, the simulation and automatic control of steam generator, the paper proposes the development of a mathematical model in absolute units and the simulation the operation of a convective heat exchange surface of the steam generator in steady and dynamic regime.

Keywords — Mathematical model, modeling, power plant, simulation, steam generator.

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A Correlative Analysis of Machining Parameters with Surface Roughness for Ferrous and Non- Ferrous Alloy Materials

Abstract Average Surface Roughness (Ra) is one of the most frequently used texture parameters to define the quality of turned components. The roughness values of a turned surface much depends on cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Optimization of these parameters is very important in relation to surface roughness as they reveal the best suitable conditions for the turning operation. In this project, a correlative study of machining parameters and the surface roughness for ferrous (stainless steel 304) and non–ferrous alloy (Aluminium) material is carried out. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques are employed in this analysis to explain the influence of different cutting parameters on surface roughness values. The combination of optimum experimental parameters can be found by machining these ferrous and non-ferrous materials in CNC turning center and finding the least surface roughness parameters. ANOVA analysis, integrated with Design Expert software, is used to determine effective ratios of the parameters and subsequently the relationships between input parameters and their responses relationship are established. The minimum surface roughness results in reference to spindle rpm, feed rate, and depth of cut are determined and estimation of the optimal surface roughness values (Ra) for least surface roughness are the results obtained in the study. In case of stainless steel 304, optimal values of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut against the least surface roughness value of 1.33 microns are found to be 220 m. min-1, 0.2 mm. rev-1 and 0.3 mm respectively. In case of Aluminium, optimal values of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut against the least surface roughness value of 2.8 microns are 200 m. min-1, 0.2 mm. rev-1 and 1.15 mm respectively. These results reaffirm that RSM and ANOVA techniques are useful and efficient in achieving optimal set of machining parameters for select ferrous and non-ferrous materials in correlating the surface finish values.

Keywords Response Surface Methodology, Analysis of Variance, Computer Numerical Control, Surface Roughness, Machining Parameters.

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Appropriate algorithm method for Petrophysical properties to construct 3D modeling for Mishrif formation in Amara oil field

Abstract Geostatistical modeling technicality hasutilized to build the geological models before scaling-up. Possible images of the area under investigation have provided from these methods that honor the well data and have the same variability computed from the original data. Property modeling is the process of filling the cells of the grid with discrete (facies) or continuous (petrophysics) properties. When interpolation between data points, propagate property values along the grid layers have executed. The main branch in the modeling algorithms obtainable is between Deterministic and Stochastic methods in Petrel. Both kinds of algorithms are available in the Facies and Petrophysical modeling processes.The process of well log up scaling is required to post values in each cell of the 3D grid where each of the wells is situated; to achieve these averages well properties are used to populate each of the cells. Three Dimension modeling has built depending to 12 wells for Mishrif formation in Amara oil field. All wells have PHIE and Water Saturation logs, which exported from interactive petrophysics software. Thereafter, scale up well logs has carried out for these wells. To building the model, there are different methods of distribution of petrophysical properties. Eight methods have executed in order to propagate property values through construct Porosity and Water Saturation Models. Depending on the results, there are not data from the modeling corresponding exactly to the true data from the log interpretation for the same well, but it approximate from the true data in different percentage .Sequential Gaussian Simulation suitable algorithm method to build the 3D modeling for Mishrif formation.

Keywords Deterministic algorithms, Mishrif Formation, Petrophysical properties, Reservoir modeling, stochastic algorithm.

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Investigation of the Remote Detector Experiments on the Gorbunov Effect

Abstract Investigations of the effect Gorbunova possible to determine the localization of the defect contactless microwave sensor from a distance of 70-180 mm. the possibility of indexing latent defect by comparing results before and after heating.

Keywords Microwave imaging method non-destructive testing of metals, the «Gorbunov» effect reactivation of samples, the indication of defects in the metal.

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Dimensional analysis application when calculating heat losses

AbstractThe article describes the procedure for the determination of heat loss through a mathematical model, which was processed through a dimensional analysis. The output of this model is a simple relationship where, based on the locating constant and the regression coefficient, it is possible to determine the loss of the piping system. Subsequently, this method was applied to calculate the heat loss of a pre-insulating pipe buried underground.

Keywordsheat loss, heat network, model, dimensional analysis.

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Design of a Hydrogen Compressor Powered by Accumulated Heat and Generated in Metal Hydrides

AbstractThe proposed article describes a compressor design for using the heat generated in the hydrogen absorption process into the metal alloy during compression. The absorption of hydrogen into the alloy occurs after the desired pressure has been achieved, whereby the catalytic effect of the used metals to dissociate the hydrogen molecule and the subsequent diffusion of the hydrogen atoms into the intermetallic space of the lattice occur. The absorption process is accompanied by a gradual increase in pressure up to the total saturation value of the metal. The equilibrium pressure at which the absorption occurs is highly dependent on the temperature of the alloy. The difference in the equilibrium pressures of MH materials at an acceptable temperature change has led to efforts of creating a hydrogen compressor that would use MH heating and refrigeration heat cycle.

Keywordshydrogen, alloy, compressor, compression, absorption.

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Load on a wind turbine blade and its stress condition

Abstract – The article provides an analysis of the stress and deformation conditions of NACA blade at wind speed of 3-12 m/s and in a parking position (over 20 m/s). The wind speed of 9 m/s and Poisson's glass-epoxy laminate with a value of 0.43 initiates yaw of the blade tip from the axis of rotation by 651 mm. Von Mises stress reaches a value of 75.58 MPa. Visualization of airflow around the blade demonstrates that flow separation occurs at the point of blade mounting in the hub and the speed is higher than airflow speed around the blade tip.

Keywords the finite element method, visualization of air-flow, stress of the blade.

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Examination of essential oils used in PLA with GC-MS method

Abstract Upto date, many experiments have been carried out successfully in producing and using essential oil-treated biodegradable polylactid acid (PLA), but the examinations revealed. That essential oils, theoretically consisting the same composition, (like cinnamonoil, majoram oil, orclaryoil) crystallize differently in the PLA base, weakening its mechanical, optical, and thermal properties. The aim of the experiment is to define the exact components with a Gas-Chromatography instrument with MS-detector. It has been found that among the compounds detected in different cinnamon oil samples, there are indeed other potentially harmful components, such as serpentines, alcoholic derivatives, mineral oils and phthalic acid esters, which have caused the condition to deteriorate.

Keywords biopolymer, essential oils, GC-MS, phtalic acid esters, PLA.

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Waste Management Protocols for Iridium-192 Sources Production Laboratory Used in Cancer Treatment in Brazil

AbstractObjective: The iridium-192 wired sources production results in radioactive waste that needs to follow the guidelines. The aim of this study is to do a radioactive waste management of wastes from iridium-192 sources production laboratory used in cancer treatment in Brazil. Methods: The wire is acquired in an alloy form with 80% platinum and 20% iridium encapsulated with 100%. Electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, and posterior iridium neutron activation (to determine contaminants) are performed to ensure quality. A 50-cm twisted wire is placed in an aluminum tube. The tube is sealed and place inside the reactor irradiator system and is left for decay during 30 hours to wait for the others undesired activation products to decay. The wire is prepared for treatment with 48 cm length with 192 mCi maximum activity. All the equipment use inside the hot cell must be calibrated every four months. All the waste must be removed from the hot cell. Results: The solid waste is previously characterized in the analysis phase. The contaminants are already known and they are insignificant due to their fast half-life. The iridium-192 half-life is 74.2 days, classified as very short half-life waste. The reminiscent activity is 8mCi. Conclusion: The radioactive waste generated during the I192 wires production is solid, was a short half-life and a weakly activity of 9.7 GBq.g-1. According to the standards, this activity is too high to be discarded into the environment (limit 10 Bq.g-1). The waste must be managed by the R&R (retain e retard) system.

Keywords Iridium-192, Radioactive waste, Sealed sources, Sources production, Waste management.

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Computing the weights of criteria with interval-valued fuzzy sets for MCDM problems

Abstract In the real world, many influenced factors or criteria should be considered in the multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) process. Face to the uncertain environment, the decision makers or experts always cannot express their opinions exactly in the decision-making process. Under this situation, interval-valued fuzzy sets are suitable used to represent the subjective judgments of decision makers. In this paper, the fuzzy AHP method is applied to compute the fuzzy weights of each criterion based on the interval-valued fuzzy sets. The proposed method can provide a more flexible way for decision makers to express their subjective opinions. A systematic method is presented here to compute the fuzzy weights of criteria for dealing with a MCDM problem. An example is presented to illustrate the computational procedure of the proposed method. Conclusions and future research direction will be discussed at the end of this paper.

Keywords MCDM, Interval-valued fuzzy set, Fuzzy AHP.

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Theory of Dipole-Exchange Spin Excitations in a Spherical Ferromagnetic Nanoshell, consideration of the Boundary Conditions

Abstract The paper continues study of dipole-exchange spin excitations in a spherical ferromagnetic nanoshell started by the author in the previous paper. The proposed model considers the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, the exchange interaction, the anisotropy effects and the damping effects. A new method of obtaining the values’ spectrum of the wavenumbers for the investigated excitations – the method based on the application of general boundary conditions – is proposed. Consequently, the values’ spectra of the wavenumbers and the frequencies of the investigated excitations are obtained in addition to the previously obtained dispersion law. Exploitation of the above-mentioned method essentially extends the area of application of the obtained results compared to the previous paper. The obtained dependence of the wavenumber on the angular mode number is shown to be weak and close to linear. On the other hand, the obtained dependence of the wavenumber on the radial mode number is shown to be essential. The obtained spectrum of wavenumbers’ values is shown to transform to a quasi-one-dimensional form once specific conditions are satisfied; these conditions are found.

Keywords Magnetic dynamics, Spin excitation, Dipole-exchange theory, Ferromagnetic nanosystem, Spherical nanoshell.

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Secure Outsourced Association Rule Mining using Homomorphic Encryption

AbstractSeveral techniques are used in data analysis, where frequent itemset mining and association rule mining are very popular among them. The motivation for ‘Data Mining as a Service’ (DMaaS) paradigm is that when the data owners are not capable of doing mining tasks internally they have to outsource the mining work to a trusted third party. Multiple data owners can also collaboratively mine by combining their databases. In such cases the privacy of outsourced data is a major issue. Here the context includes necessity of ‘corporate privacy’ which means other than the data, the result of mining should also preserve privacy requirements. The system proposed uses Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to encrypt the data items before outsourcing in order to prevent the vulnerability of ‘Known Plaintext’ attack in the existing system. Fictitious transactions are inserted to the databases using k-anonymity method to counter the frequency analysis attack. A symmetric homomorphic encryption scheme is applied in the databases for performing the mining securely. Based on the experiments and findings, though the running time of proposed solution is slightly greater than the existing system, it provides better security to the data items. Since the computations tasks are performed by the third party server, consumption of resources at the data owners' side is very less.

Keywordsprivacy preserving, association rule mining, data mining, vertically partitioned databases, homomorphic encryption.

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Thursday, 31 August 2017

Engineering Journal: August Issue 2017

Engineering Journal: published its volume-3, Issue-8, August 2017 with AD Publications

Performance Analysis of Regular and Irregular Structure Under Seismic Effect for RCC and Steel Composite Column Using Response Spectrum

AbstractComposite construction is a modern method of construction presently holds a wide area of interest. This paper includes performance analysis of regular and irregular structure under seismic effect for RCC and Composite column. Modeling and analysis of structure is done by using ETABS software. Since composite construction is combination of steel section and concrete, which shows the properties of both steel and concrete. The compression efficiency of concrete and high ductile properties of steel together contributes to the structure for its perfect durability.

KeywordsComposite Column, ETABS.

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Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbon resistant plasticized PVC hoses

Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of two types of aliphatic hydrocarbons resistant soft PVC hoses. A number of tests were performed to determine the internal structures and the difference between the hoses. First tests concerned with pentane resistance, the plasticizer and extender's effects on variations in the structure. The solubility of gas in plasticizer and the changing of morphology determined the applicability. The second analysis of FTIR results can show the internal structure’s composition, what the difference is between the two formulations. The weight changes of the hoses can shows the material’s gas resistance. The gas diffusion's driving force was the gas evaporation. The gas diffusion can be determined from the decrease of the quantity of the hydrocarbons. The internal structure was also observed by DMA. The measurement was made after a pentane soak of simple samples. The morphology, the material's density, mechanical properties and aliphatic hydrocarbon resistance of samples were determined. After all the measurements, the difference between the products was noticeable during even visual inspection of the samples as well.

Keywords: PVC hose, FTIR, DMA, gas diffusion, aliphatic hydrocarbon resistant.

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Characterization of Layered GaSe Crystals Intercalated with RbNO3 Ferroelectric Salt and their Application for Electric Capacitors

Abstract XRD, SEM, EDX investigations as well as wide temperature (T = 5–300 K) photoluminescence measurements of GaSe single crystals intercalated from the melt of RbNO3 ferroelectric salt at various temperatures and exposure times are performed in this work. Intercalation by this method results in GaSe matrix fragmentation by separate polycrystals 1 mm in size which consist of bulk GaSe segments (with sizes up to 50.0 mkm) and veins of RbNO3 ferroelectric salt with thickness reaching 2–3 mkm. Within the GaSe segments are inclusions of nano-sized phases consisting of RbNO3 salt whose diameter does not exceed 120 nm. It has been shown that the creation of GaSe<RbNO3> hybrid structure has an insignificant influence on the optical properties of GaSe matrix, since in the photoluminescence spectra of GaSe<RbNO3> at T = 300 K one can observe emission of free excitons which is typical for GaSe single crystals. The electrical investigations performed indicate that the intercalated GaSe<RbNO3> or GaSe<KNO3> are capable of accumulating electric energy, and prototypes of supercapacitors based on them possess: specific long-time energy 105 kJ/kg and resource of cycles > 106.

Keywords Layered crystal, GaSe, intercalation, ferroelectric, supercapacitors.

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On the Method of Construction of the Dependence of the Heat Extension Coefficient on Temperature in Heat-resistant Alloys

Abstract In this paper, we consider methods and methods for studying rods from high-temperature alloys, in particular, the study of the dependence of the coefficient of thermal expansion on temperature. According to the tasks of the paper, methods are developed for taking into account the presence of local surface heat exchanges, temperatures, and internal point heat sources in the study of rods made of high-temperature alloys. The scientific significance of the project is due to the fact that the results of the development can be used for in-depth study of the nonlinear thermal and physical state of the structural rod elements that work in the presence of heterogeneous types of heat sources. Such designs include gas-generating, nuclear, thermal and hydrogen power plants, as well as jet engines and internal combustion engines. In order to ensure continuous reliable operation of these facilities, the authors developed fundamental methods that allow to adequately simulate non-linear thermophysical processes in the rod bearing elements of installations taking into account simultaneous presence of local thermal insulation, heat exchange, temperatures, and internal point heat sources. The laws of the distribution of temperature, elastic, temperature and thermoelastic components of strains and stresses, as well as displacement, are obtained. This became the basis for the creation in the future of a program in the programming language PYTHON, with the help of which it is possible to construct the corresponding fields of temperature distribution, all the components of deformation, stress and displacement in the form of graphs.

Keywords Coefficient of thermal expansion, High-temperature alloy, steady-state thermophysical process, Thermal conductivity.

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Characteristics of Settlement Consolidation and Influencing Factors Analysis of Dredger Fill of Clay Soil Mixing Sand

Abstract Sedimentation column that the size of100×500mm is used to study the relationship between the self weight settlement of cohesive soil and the initial sand-mud ratio and initial water content of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand. Test results show that:(1) the consolidation time of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand is mainly related to the size of the settlement column, compared with the initial water content, the influence of sand-mud ratio is not significant. The larger the size of the settlement column, the longer time of gravity consolidation will be completed, and the higher initial water content, the shorter time of consolidation. (2) The settlement curve of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand is in accordance with the relation formula .In the formula, is the steady settlement. The stability time of settlement consolidation can be deduced by this formula. Under the condition of the same water content, the consolidation settlement of dredger fill of clay soil mixing sand increases linearly with the sand-mud ratio, but the amplitude of the increase is not large; (3) the logarithmic curve of consolidation settlement is basically divided into three stages: The straight line segment, the upper concave line segment and the lower concave line segment. At first, the slope of the linear section increases gradually with the increase of the initial water content; The upper concave curve gradually decreases with the increase of water content, and when the initial water content reaches a certain value, the concave curve becomes a straight line; The lower concave curve section gradually changes to the curve type, then the slope of the settlement curve decreases and finally tends to the horizontal.

Keywords clay soil mixing sand; self weight consolidation settlement; initial water content; initial sand-mud ratio.

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Parametric Analysis of Hyperbolic Cooling Tower under Seismic Loads, Wind Loads and Dead Load through Staad. Pro

Abstract Hyperbolic cooling towers are large, thin shell reinforced concrete structures which contribute to environmental protection and to power generation efficiency and reliability. The safety of hyperbolic cooling towers is important to the continuous operation of a power plant. It is observed from the analysis that maximum displacement, support reactions, support moments, stresses and bending moments in plates due to seismic loading, wind loading and dead load i.e. its self weight on a hyperbolic cooling tower is continuous function of geometry (top diameter, throat diameter and height). Earthquake zone plays the important role in analysis. So from this work it can be observed that 300 mm thickness, throat diameter 60m and height 250m is much efficient among all but if height is mandatory to extent than height should not be more than 159m (height taken from actual work) and 170 m height is critical.

Keywords Cooling tower, node displacement, support reactions, plate stresses.

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Sub-pixel Distance Measurement Algorithm Based on Improved SURF

Abstract A sub-pixel-level measurement algorithm based on improved SURF is proposed. Firstly, the sobel operator is used to extract the edge of the image quickly in order to highlight the potential feature point, and reduce the detected range of the SURF algorithm. Then use the SURF algorithm to obtain the sub-pixel level coordinates of the matching feature points in the two images. After the match, the affine transformation remove the wrong match point. Finally, the moving distance is calculated by using the sub-pixel-level coordinates of the matching points. The experimental results show that the error of the moving distance is less than 3 %, according to the feature points of the two images. And if the original image resolution is 2560 * 1440, the required running time is only 0.3 to 0.4 seconds.

Keywords Distance Measurement, SURF, Sub-pixel, Sobel.

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Trace Analysis of Carbazole in Commercial Diesel by using Adsorption on Activated Biochar from Rice Husk Pyrolysis

Abstract The valorization of rice husk biochar obtained by pyrolysis was studied by production high quality activated carbon. Activated carbon (AC) chemically treated by K2CO3, was used as sorbent phase in bar adsorptive microextraction followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer analysis (BAµE/GC×GC-qMS) for trace analysis of carbazole in commercial diesel. The prepared AC was characterized by N2 adsorption, SEM-EDS and pHPZC. Assays of nitrogen adsorption isotherm demonstrated that the AC presented microporosity and the Density Functional Theory Calculation was applied to obtain information concerning the micropore size distribution. The BET surface area and total pore volume were 1850 m2g-1and 0.83 cm3g-1, respectively. AC from rice huskpyrolysis (RH) showed an acceptable adsorption capacity for Carbazole in diesel matrices allowed us to obtain average recoveries of 91.0 % and convenient analytical parameters. From the data obtained, the proposed methodology proved to be a suitable sorption-based static microextraction alternative for monitoring trace levels of carbazole in commercial diesel.

Keywords Rice husk pyrolysis, Activated carbon, Chemical activation, Bar adsorptive microextraction, BAµE/GC×GC-qMS, Nitrogen compounds, Diesel.

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Research on the Unsteady Discharge Flow of Dry Chemical Powder Tank

Abstract In this study, we investigated the activation of powders by the supply of N2 gas in the dry chemical powder tanks. In this study, we investigated the effect of N2 gas on the activation of dry chemical powder (KHCO3) in Dry chemical Powder Tank, We studied how dry chemical powder (KHCO3) is activated according to the number of nozzles in the tank. 170 kg, and 3000 kg models, the number of nozzles was 4, 8. We gave the points to confirm the activation of the powder. This study describes the optimal conditions for activation depending on the type of dry chemical powder tank and the number of nozzles.

Keywords Powder activation, Discharge Flow, Dry Chemical Powder Tank, nitrogen gas.

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Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Unsteady Nanofluids in a Small Pipe with Pulse Pressure

Abstract In the present paper, developing turbulence forced convection flows were numerically investigated by using water-Al2O3 nano-fluid through a circular compact pipe which has 4.5mm diameter. Each model has a steady state and uniform heat flux (UHF) at the wall. The whole numerical experiments were processed under the RPM 100 to 500 and the nano-fluid models were made by the Alumina volume fraction. Single-phase fluid models were defined through nano-fluid physical and thermal properties calculations, Two-phase models (mixture granular model) were processed in 100nm diameter. The results show that comparison of nusselt number and heat transfer rate are improved as the Al2O3 volume fraction increased. All of the numerical flow simulations are processed by the FLUENT. The results show an increase from volume fraction concentration and an increase in heat transfer coefficient with increasing RPM.

Keywords nanofluid, mixture, alumina, nusselt number, heat transfer coefficient, Pulsation pressure.

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Analysis of laminar nanofluid forced convection heat transport through the CFD

AbstractIn the present paper, developing laminar forced convection flows were numerically investigated by using water-Al2O3 nano-fluid through a circular compact pipe which has 4.5mm diameter. Each model has a steady state and uniform heat flux (UHF) at the wall. The whole numerical experiments were processed under the Re = 1050 and the nano-fluid models were made by the Alumina volume fraction. Single-phase fluid models were defined through nano-fluid physical and thermal properties calculations, Two-phase model (mixture granular model) were processed in 100nm diameter. The results show that Nusselt number and heat transfer rate are improved as the Al2O3 volume fraction increased. All of the numerical flow simulations are processed by the FLUENT. The results show the increment of thermal transfer from the volume fraction concentration.

KeywordsNanofluid, Alumina, Laminar flow, Mixture, Nusselt number, Heat transfer coefficient, Homogeneous flow.

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Experimental-laboratory study of the flow around mussel shocks

Abstract The productivity in an organized mussel culture area is closely related to the hydrodynamics in the area where the mussel units are located. The interaction between the hydrodynamics and mussel farming in Chalastra (NW Thessalonikigulf) has been investigated during last decades. In the framework of the study of optimizing the quality of mussels production in mussel farming areas, a laboratory channel was designed, where the flow around and possibly through the mussel shocks would be studied in physical scale. The experiments were designed in physical/natural scale and the relevant variables were determined. Moreover, the specific positions for the measurements, the depth of the flow and the velocity currents were also determined. The following three mean velocity values of entrance water velocity U were used in the experiment; 5 cm/sec, 7 cm/sec and 9cm/sec. A basic research parameter used in the experiment was the distance between the mussel shocks. Four cases were taken into account: 300mm, 500mm, 700mm and 900mm. The final goal was the determination of the velocity field in the areas around the shocks. The velocity field was studied with the modern Particle Image Velocimetry technique. According to the above presented experiments, for distances between the shocks greater than 500 mm the velocity field is almost restored. Furthermore the case of larger distance between the shocks (i.e. 90cm) present the largest percentage of the velocity class 5-10cm/sec(occurring for entrance current velocities 7 and 9 cm/s)which seem to be the best range for mussel’s growth.

Keywords current velocity, laboratory experiments, mussel shocks, PIV method.

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A Face Recognition Library using Convolutional Neural Networks

AbstractIn this work, we propose a face recognition library, with the objective of lowering the implementation complexity of face recognition features on applications in general. The library is based on Convolutional Neural Networks; a special kind of Neural Network specialized for image data. We present the main motivations for the use of face recognition, as well as the main interface for using the library features. We describe the overall architecture structure of the library and evaluated it on a large scale scenario. The proposed library achieved an accuracy of 98.14% when using a required confidence of 90%, and an accuracy of 99.86% otherwise.

KeywordsArtificial Intelligence, CNNs, Face Recognition, Image Recognition, Machine Learning, Neural Networks.

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Optical Rheology of a Polydimethylsiloxane Fluid in Jeffrey-Hamel Type Flow

Abstract The rheo-optical behavior of a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fluid was examined at room temperature for various pressure drops (flow rates) across a Jeffrey Hamel type converging wedge flow cell. The strain-rates were computed from local velocity measurements using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and the planar extensional flow behavior of the polymer melt was studied via birefringence measurements along the centerline of the flow cell. The linear relation between the stress and polarizability tensors were confirmed over a range of strain rates that extended well into the non-Newtonian region. The first normal stress difference (FNSD) was calculated from the local velocity measurements using a two-term Goddard-Miller model with a single Maxwell-type relaxation time constant of 0.0174 s computed from Rouse model and a zero-shear viscosity of 300 Pa.s. A linear stress-optical coefficient of 1.41 x 10-10 Pa-1 was obtained for PDMS in planar extensional flow at room temperature from the flow birefringence measurements and the first normal stress difference (FNSD) computed using the Goddard-Miller model. This compares well with values for PDMS in the range of 0.909 – 1.84 x 10-10 Pa-1 at room temperature as reported by various researchers.

Keywords Polydimethylsiloxane, Flow Birefringence, Jeffrey-Hamel Flow, Stress-Optical Coefficient, Goddard-Miller Model.

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Innovative anaerobic submerged media in small waste treatment plants in Hungary

Abstract During the past 10 years 32 anaerobic FLEXIPAK®-MINI waste water treatment plants were installed in Hungary, all in unique, energy saving communal areas without public sewer systems. Innovative research and development, as well as planning were carried out by GYULAVÁRI CONSULTING Ltd. (Gyulavári & Kormos, 1993).

Using the TURBOPAK® contact units developed by our company, the anaerobic treatment process has provided phase separation (removal of suspended solids) and biological partial treatment at the same time, ensured partly by the sloping, 60º angle installation of the units, generating a gravitational upward flow. The multi cell contact unit provides a 150 m2/m3 specific anaerobic biofilm surface for the microorganisms.

Based on our experience with combined dual processes, the TURBOPAK® contact unit provides an innovative, efficient and cost effective solution for intensification, compared to formerly known anaerobic, energy free solutions. The new innovative equipment was registered under the FLEXIPAK®-MINI brand name and the manufacturer of TURBOPAK® (System Gyulavári) is PANDAN Ltd. (Hungary).

Keywords FLEXIPAK®-Mini, submerged, anaerobic system, TURBOPAK® submerged, biological, fix-media (System Gyulavári).

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Big Data, Decision Tree Induction, and Image Analysis for the Discovery of Decision Rules for Colon Examination

Abstract— The aim of our research was to develop a method that allows us automatically to discover the decision rules for diagnosing medical images in normal tissue images and images showing a polyp. We used a data set of images that came from an endoscope video system used for colon examination. The data set contains 283 normal tissue images and 61 polyp images. The 283 normal images consist of dark regions and reflection. One must decide if the image shows a polyp or not. This is a two-class problem. The unequal number of the data in the two classes makes our problem to an unbalanced data set problem. The polyps in the images were identified and selected by a “well-trained” medical expert. Based on these medical images, we study the behavior of two different statistical texture descriptors, the co-occurrence matrix-texture descriptor and our novel Random set texture descriptor. We review the theory of both texture descriptors and then we apply them to our medical data set. We used a decision-tree induction method to learn the classification rules based on our tool “Decision Master”. In both cases, for the full unequally distributed data set and for the balanced data set, we achieved the best error rate based the Random-set texture descriptor. The performance of the co-occurrence matrix-texture descriptor was worse. For statistical based texture descriptors large enough texture are necessary that cannot always guaranteed for medical objects. Since the co-occurrence matrix is based on higher order statistic that might be the reason for the worse performance. The results show that decision tree induction and image analysis based on our novel texture descriptor is an excellent method to mine medical images for the decision rules even when the data set is unbalanced, but not only that makes our Random-set based texture descriptor favorable. It also gives a flexible way to describe the appearance of the medical objects in symbolic terms, the computation time is less, and it can be set up as software module that can be flexible used in different systems.

Keywords— Image Analysis, Endoscope Images, Colon Examination, Polyp Images, Decision Tree Induction, Random Set Texture Descriptor, Co-occurrence Texture Descriptor, Unbalanced Data Set Problem.

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Experimental Study of Problem of Estrangement of AR. Drone Four Rotor Helicopter Velocity Parameter Calculated by the Internal IMU

AbstractFor four rotor helicopter system, the velocity parameter is important for stable real-time control, and the velocity is calculated by the IMU (Internal Measurement Unit) from the three-axis acceleration and gyro sensors.

Since the IMU unit developed and designed for multi-purpose use, high-frequency range of the acceleration/gyro sensors information was used for estimating the velocity and it is afraid to do overestimation of the velocity especially when the drone collision against the wall (even with a slight contact) and the impact due to blasts. The result shows that the IMU unit calculated velocity was divergent 20 times from the real velocity measured from the camera on the ceiling even when low speed contact with a wall (25 cm/sec speed). When the estimated velocity parameter would be used for the position control and stabilizing of AR. Drone helicopter, it will be necessary to consider the problem of the estrangement of the velocity to develop the drone system for inspection at infrastructure equipment such as the bridge or tunnel.

KeywordsFour rotor helicopter, AR. Drone 1.0, Velocity estimation, IMU, Investigation of bridge or tunnels.

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Engineering Journal: December 2017

Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Piezoelectric Thermal Fire Annunciator Abstract — The paper presents theoretical and experimental...