Engineering Journal: November 2016
Abstract— This paper is a baseline document to review the latest technologies, algorithms and available hardware that can be used to build and automate a library system using Radio Frequency Identification technology as the infrastructure, allowing the librarian to track and manage real-life objects. The purpose is to review the current research that have been accomplished around this area in order to produce the best possible design, and implementation of a robust solution with maximum efficiency to automate a library system. The article first provides an overview of the radio frequency identification technology, its history, radio frequency principle, and how distance and frequency can affect the signal coverage distance. Then radio frequency identification structure and types are explained, after that the paper evaluates the latest researches in the radio frequency identification infrastructure and middleware. Finally the issue of radio signal collision is discussed, and corresponding anti-collision algorithms are briefly explained.
Keywords— Active Passive RFID, Far Field, Near Field, RFID in libraries.
Development of Fire Educational Systems by Specific Core Competency Indicators based on the Career Progression Management of Fire Departments
Abstract— Firefighting work is one of the most urgent, dangerous, and high stress types of government work. Due to state policies and financial limitations, the few new firefighting personnel in Taiwan each year have resulted in a substantial shortage in firefighting personnel.
The hierarchical analysis method and structural equation modeling were employed to build Taiwan’s entry-level firefighting personnel competency indicators. These indicators can be incorporated into the oral and written test-oriented state examination given by the Ministry of Examination or adopted by the government authority for Education and training, in order to enhance the effectiveness of screening and to recruit well-qualified personnel that meet the expectation of society.
The present study established a set of core competency indicators covering seven constructs, which in turn contain 46 factors in total. The experts ranked the importance of the seven constructs from high to low as follows: professional firefighting knowledge, firefighting work skills, fire engine and equipment operation, self-management, firefighter physical fitness, firefighting practical experience, and interpersonal skills.
Keywords— Firefighting Education, Core competencies, firefighting personnel competency, Structural equation model.
Abstract— Besides imaging, the central step in diagnostics of head and neck cancer is biopsy and rigid triple endoscopy, a routine procedure for over 50 years. However, the assessment of this procedure in terms of comparative studies has so far been unfeasible for ethical and practical reasons. The goal set was to construct a simulation mannequin of lifelike synthetic tissue for the evaluation and training of triple endoscopy. Paired up as a tandem, mechanical engineering and medicine postgraduates captured the work environment and gross steps of the procedure by means of observations in the surgery room, creation of a workflow and brainstorming in a multidisciplinary team. The further specifications, derived from in-depth interviews with eight ENT senior physicians, were as well incorporated into a quality function deployment (QFD), that resulted in focus on realistic, computed tomography (CT) scan based anatomy, lifelike haptics and optics of mucous membrane surfaces. These priorities lead to the decision to construct a modular triple endoscopy simulator which was integrated into a suitable mannequin already available on the market. As triple endoscopy was consistently judged by 100% of the interviewed ENT senior physicians as a challenging procedure the project was considered to be meaningful. The first consideration was to assess the procedure, which is now possible, but during the project time we decided to alter the weighting in the direction of simulator based training.
Keywords— Quality Function Deployment, high-fidelity simulator, head and neck cancer, training, triple endoscopy, multi disciplinary engineering, difficult airway management.
Synthesis of Discrete Steady-State Error Free Modal State Controller Based on Predefined Pole Placement Area and Measurable State Variables
Abstract— The entire case study aims to present a procedure for synthesis of discrete steady-state error free modal state controller, based on predefined pole placement area and measurable state variables, suggesting a solution for the so called pole placement problem (PPP) (known also as pole assignment problem - PAP). It will introduce a research on how the suggested solution will result in modeling of dual-mass DC electromechanical plant.
Keywords— controller synthesis, discrete modal state controller, modal control, state feedback, state space, state space model, pole assignment, pole placement
Glycerol sorbent selection and optimized conditions for ethyl biodiesel purification by response surface methodology
Abstract— The feasibility of using alternative and commercial sorbents for dry washing biodiesel was quantitatively examined. Rice husk ash (RHA) and Amberlite showed similar performance and their applications in adsorbing glycerol were determined by response surface methodology. A 22 face centered composite design was employed to analyze the combined effect of sorbent concentration and temperature on glycerol removal. The statistical analysis indicated that levels of 2.1% (RHA) and 3.7% (Amberlite) at 30 ºC maximized the glycerol removal with minimum loss of adsorbate. Under optimal conditions, the sorbents were used for purifying ethyl biodiesel samples from palm kernel oil. Both sorbents were quite efficient in removing glycerol, providing samples containing glycerol values lower than 0.01% that meet the required standard to be used as a fuel. The high quality of the purified samples was also demonstrated by the ethyl esters contents (> 98.0%), viscosity (< 4.0 mm2 s-1) and density (@ 867 kg m-3) values. Rice husk ash was also able to remove monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols, thus its structure, composition and adsorption kinetics were further assessed to better understand its property as sorbent
Keywords— Biodiesel, dry washing, glycerol, sorbent, factorial design.
Abstract— The paper presents an application of a recently developed Fuzzy logic controller for time-delay systems to the idle speed control (ISC) problem in spark ignition (SI) internal combustion (IC) engines.
Automobiles spark ignition engines spend a large percentage of their time operating in the idle speed region. The engine idle speed control system design is a difficult problem because are inherently nonlinear, incorporating variable time delays characteristics exists everywhere between the input and output of an engine. The output time delay which varies inversely with the engine speed makes the control process even harder. Furthermore, disturbances caused by different operating conditions may arise during engine idle speed running. All these reasons have increased difficulties to control the idle speed accurately.
Engines are inherently nonlinear, incorporating variable time delays and discontinuities which make modeling difficult, and for this reason their control is well suited to optimization using Fuzzy logic algorithms. This paper aims to apply Fuzzy logical controller to maintain a constant idle speed, in this experiment, a SAAB B202 engine was used to identify idle speed appearance. The developed model has a control-design oriented philosophy and is capable to significantly minimize the varying of idle speed within an engine speed.
Keywords— idle speed control, spark ignition, inherently nonlinear, time delay, fuzzy logical control.
Abstract— The article presents the results of optimizing the final production process (the time of required dehydration) of an industrially produced compressor. Optimization is based on simulations carried out that were conducted in ANSYS CFX. Several variants were tested in which the process parameters were varied (the inside diameter of the tube, the flow at the inlet and outlet temperature). The results of the simulations show which the parameters of the compressor speed up the dehydration process and what consequences shortening of process will have for of the whole production of the compressor. Optimization of the compressor manufacturing process was performed for the NT series compressor. The compressor is the largest industrial compressor manufactured in a specialized global company.
Keywords— compressor, dehydration, heating, optimization, simulation.
Abstract— Today, it is a very common problem that bots attack on the online polls and register free email accounts automatically that increase the congestion on network as well as consume large amount of server space. Therefore, to prevent these kinds of attacks, a technique called Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) have been used. The main motive of present research work is to design a CAPTCHA in order to increase the security by preventing bot attacks using random mathematical functions and background noise makes it invulnerable for the optical recognition (OCR) technique to break the CAPTCHA as OCR attack is capable of only extracting characters from an image. To make CAPTCHA more secure, cross operations has been embedded in the present algorithm which makes it impossible for OCR technique to decode its output result.
Keywords— CAPTCHA, OCR, Puzzle, Cross operation, Bots.
Abstract— Weathering steel (WS) of Corten B type was exposed for three years at three test sites including urban and marine sites. After one year-exposure, WS showed the protective ability better than carbon steel (CS) did. The corrosion loss of WS fitted well power law with high correlations. The characterization of rust layer was studied by using X-ray diffraction, optical microscope and SEM-EDX. Goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), maghemite and magnetite were founded in corrosion product formed on WS for 3, 6, and 12 month-exposure; The structure of rust layer of WS composed of two layers – the inner layer dark-grayish, dense and good adherent to steel substrate; and the outer layer porous and reddish; The morphologies of rust surface showed the sandy and flowery structure typical for lepidocrocite and cotton balls structure typical for goethite; Cr and Cu distributed in the inner layer of rust – at distance of 40-60µm from steel substrate. The resistance of rust layers was evaluated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. This proved the predominance of WS over CS in corrosion resistance. The influence of environmental factors on protectiveness of WS was also discussed in this paper.
Keywords: weathering steel, rust layer, corrosion loss, rust resistance, protectiveness.
Abstract— In this paper a numerical model is developed to predict the behaviour of steel-concrete composite beams with circular openings up to failure. The numerical model takes into account both material and geometric non-linearity and nonlinear behavior of the connection. Calibration with experimental data obtained from previous work shows that the model is able to predict, with relatively good accuracy, the ultimate load. A parametric study is then followed to study the influence of post dimensions and the shape and spacing of the openings on the behavior of such beams under the action of three types of static loading
Keywords— Composite beam, concrete, steel, nonlinear behaviour, shape opening, spacing openings.
Abstract— Hydrogen storage is considered one of the most critical issues that must be resolved for the implementation of economic and viable hydrogen energy systems. Without effective storage systems, it will be very difficult to achieve beneficial value from the hydrogen economy. One physical limit on the storage of hydrogen is the density of compressed and liquid hydrogen. Currently, considerable attention is being paid to the development of metal hydride alloys, which can effectively absorb and retain a large amount of hydrogen through chemical bonds. The article analyzes research into metal hydride alloys based on Ti-Cr-Mn, Ti-Cr-Ni and Cr-Ti-Ni0.5-Mn0.5.
Keywords— hydrogen, metal hydride, absorption storage, storage capacity.
Abstract— Gasification of biomass fabricating syngas fuels has contributed to expand the applicability of solid biomass fuel. But the by-product tar of the gasification has largely limited the effectiveness. However, gasification Fe- catalyst has been recognized as a good factor reducing the tar and increasing the gas quality. The paper studies the fabrication of separated nano iron and carrier attached nano iron regarding to a catalytic application during the biomass gasification. The applied technique of the fabrication includes pyrolysis and mechanical milling. Character of the products, as structures and particle dimension, has been examined. The suitable fabrication condition has been considered.
Keywords— Nano Iron, Pyrolysis, Milling, Fabrication technique, Gasification of Biomass Fabrication.
Influence of heat treatment and processing on the mechanical properties of a NiTi-Al matrix composite manufactured via composite extrusion
Abstract— Shape Memory Alloy - Metal Matrix Composites (SMA-MMC) are a relatively new class of the so called intelligent or smart materials. They can reach exceptional mechanical properties or even a functionalization by the use of Shape-Memory-Materials as “reinforcing”-elements. In this work a SMA-MMC consisting of an EN AW-6060 aluminum matrix and a Nickel-Titan-alloy (Nitinol) wire as reinforcing element was investigated. The composite was produced by a composite extrusion process which allowed the unidirectional embedding of the NiTi-wires. The manufactured composite profiles were then additionally heat treated to investigate the influence of heat impact on NiTi-wire and matrix properties and their influence on the composites overall mechanical properties and deformation behavior. The influence of heat treatment only on the wire was investigated by heat treatments of single wires in a furnace comparable to the composites heat treatment. The composites mechanical properties and those of the wires were determined by isothermal tensile tests. Furthermore the interface properties were determined by push-out-tests. The interfacial strength was found to be correlated to the matrix strength and was therefore highest in the T6 heat treatment state. The testing temperature for the tensile tests was chosen to T = 295 K to achieve a pure martensitic state of the NiTi-alloy and to T = 423 K to represent a pure austenitic state. The results showed that the composite reaches a significant increased ultimate tensile strength with at the same time increased ductility, measured by uniform strain, compared to the matrix material. At elevated temperatures additionally a significant increase of the 0.2% yield strength was observed and the measured uniform strain as well as the total strain to fracture was increased in all heat treatment states. Influence of heat treatment of the wire revealed an increase of the strain for reaching a fully detwinned martensite (isostress plateau). Comparing the experimental determined deformation behavior to a theoretical approach based on the Kelly-Model showed instead that the wire in the composite lead to the assumption that rather no or only a small effect from the heat treatment occurs. Therefore, it is assumed that the observed lengthening of the isostress plateau has to be connected with a microstructural transformation from oxidation of the wire in the furnace while the embedded wire in the composite is protected from reactions with the atmosphere during the heat treatment.
Keywords— Smart Material, Composite extrusion, Nitinol, SM-MMC, Deformation behavior.
Abstract- The method of image recognition of spatial objects of autonomous mobile robots is presented in this paper. This method is based on equations system in which the changes of the inertia moments depend on the change in the size and rotation of the image of a plane figure. The results of computer simulations confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method are carried out.
Keywords- identification of images, flat figure, monochrome images, affined transformation, inertia moments.
Complimentarity of digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry and simulated infrared thermography for Cultural Heritage structural diagnostic research
Abstract— In the field of art conservation there is an increased demand for non destructive and non invasive techniques able to perform remote defect detection for structural evaluation of historical structures and works of art. The techniques must have some basic important characteristics as non destructivity, accuracy, repeatability and desired features as non contact, portability, resolution, broad range of applicability. The simulated infrared thermography (SIRT) and digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry (DHSPI) are systems discussed in detail elsewhere; in this paper have been used in combined testing on art related targets according to the above criteria. Results confirm the effectiveness of both techniques in the conservation field and examples are here in presented. Each system is thus described as individual method highlighting the advantages and limitations of each. The aim is to present the suitability and appropriateness for accurate defect mapping in structural documentation reports. This work is considered preliminary and is in progress for the future hybrid synthesis of systems and data.
Keywords— Artwork conservation, Cultural heritage, Holography, Interferometry, Infrared thermography.
Abstract—Nanocrystalline nickel coatings were prepared from a Watts bath using pulse current (PC) condition. To investigate the temperature effect on the crystallite size and residual stress of the nano-nickel coatings, The temperature of the electroplating bath was maintained at 35 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C, and 60 °C respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the crystallite size, relative texture coefficient, and residual stress of the studied coatings. The experimental results show that with increasing temperature of the Watts bath, the average crystallite size, relative texture coefficient of crystallographic plane (200) (same direction as (100)), and compressive residual stress of nanocrystalline nickel coatings increase. It is concluded that moderately increasing the temperature (up to about 60 °C) in the process of nanocrystalline nickel coating production will promote the preferred orientation of crystallographic plane (100) and the compressive residual stress, which enhances nickel crystal compaction, coating adhesion, and coating integrity.
Keywords— Crystallite size, Electro-deposition, Nano-nickel coating, relative texture coefficient, Residual stress, Watts bath temperature.
Abstract— The rising costs of fossil fuels, particularly oil and declining reserves point to a growing need to find alternative possibilities for public and private transport. Currently, hydrogen appears to be a promising fuel. Production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water guarantees ecological purity and a positive impact on the environment. The mass application of hydrogen as a transport fuel is prevented by the lack of infrastructure, the construction of which requires a large initial investment. Despite this, there is growing pressure on car manufacturers that must respond to market demand if they want to be able to compete. The present article discusses the design of a hydrogen pump system based on the production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water, using photovoltaic panels as a primary source of electrical energy.
Keywords— hydrogen, hydrogen technology, design, filling station.