Tuesday, 31 May 2016

IJOER: Volume-2, Issue-5, May 2016

Dynamic analyses of a flat plate and a beam subjected to a moving load

Stability and Hopf bifurcation for Kaldor-Kalecki model of business cycles with two time delays

Abstract Papers investigate a Kaldor-Kalecki model of business cycle system with two different delays, which described the interaction of the gross product and the capital product. We derived the conditions for the local stability and the existence of Hopf bifurcation at the equilibrium of the system. By applying the normal form theory and center manifold theory, some explicit formulate for determining the stability and the direction of the Hopf bifurcation periodic solutions are obtained. Some numerical simulations by using Mathematica software supported the theoretical results. Finally, main conclusions are given.

Keywords Two delays, Hopf bifurcation, Stability, Business cycle, Normal form.

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Study on Some Properties of Anti-centrosymmetric Matrices

Abstract In this paper, the anti-centrosymmetric matrices have been researched. According to the structural characteristics of the anti-centrosymmetric matrix, some new methods have been used to prove the necessary and sufficient conditions of a matrix being anti-centrosymmetric and its properties of eigenvalue and eigenvector; the nonsingularity of the anti-centrosymmetric matrices have been discussed,that the odd order anti-centrosymmetric matrix is singular has been obtained, and two methods of computing inverse of the matrices(even order) have been given.

Keywords Anti-centrosymmetric Matrix, Centrosymmetric Matrix, Eigenvalue, Inverse Matrix.

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Management and Conservation Water Techniques for and by Farmers: when the water management is a risk shared by the community. Case of fragile ecosystems in Algeria

Abstract Algeria is situated in a region where the lack of water is frequent. Indeed, the period of drought is long even for zones classified in wet bioclimatic floors. This period of drought spreads out generally May until mid October for the wet said zones and all year long for the dry and desert zones. Rains are irregular and unevenly distributed. The recourse use to the techniques of collection of rainwaters, management and preservation for traditional processes is a current practice which tends to be neglected in favour of "modern" techniques of irrigation.

Our contribution has double objective:

Rehabilitation of certain techniques of collections of rainwaters (valats, poach stones, impluvium) where it is used mainly for the olive tree and the fig tree (Mounts of Kabylia, Beni Snous), and,

A study of the management techniques and preservation of the water where the risk is shared by all the community (foggara,…)

Moreover, we underline that certain areas to fragile ecology are rich in sources of water, which in spite of the institution of the social rules which make the unanimity regarding sharing and regarding distribution; the farmers cannot manage to satisfy the water requirements of their cultures, only revenue stream for some of them.

This requires a renovation of the traditional system of water delivery to the plot of land without disrupting the already established social rules, where from the necessity of a participative work, where the farmers are actively involved. The methods of water sharing are based on equity, rigor, solidarity and mutual aid through the organization of the tour of water according to the size of the plot of land, the moment of intervention, the timing and the cultures to be irrigated.

We underline that the maintenance of the network is made prior to the beginning of the campaign (countryside) of irrigation in the form of "touisa" and financial resources have never been a means of access to water. The water source is considered as a benefit of the community regardless of its location.

Keywords community, participation, preservation, fragile ecosystem, Algeria.

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Effect of radiation on electrical characteristic measurement of the fabricated CdTe / P-Si heterojunction Solar Cell

Abstract The electrical and photovoltaic properties of CdTe/p-Si heterojunction solar cells prepared by evaporation cooting on a single-crystal p-type silicon substrates are examined, under (100) mw/cm2, 25℃. The best fabricated cell shows an open-circuit voltage before irradiation g is(0.59V) and after irradiation g is (0.565 V ). The short-circuit current density before irradiation is (35 mA/cm2) and after irradiation is(30 mA/cm2). The fill factor before irradiation g is (54.5 %) and after irradiation g is (53 %). The conversion efficiency (active area) before irradiation g is(11.2%) and after irradiation g is(5.1%) .was observed during two-hour illumination test and after storing the cell in air for three months. The illumination is from the CdTe side (front wall ) .The cells are analyzed using I-V and P-V measurements, with focus on the influence of the time solar cell radiation, light intensity illumination and effective dose of γ-radiation, which play a crucial role to improve the solar cell efficiency. γ-irradiation campaign with different doses has been carried out on a series of solar cells. Deterioration of silicon solar cells parameters by gamma irradiation; this is strongly supported by results of minority carrier lifetime, which show a clearly decreasing minority carrier lifetime as radiation dose increases.

Keywords n-CdTe/ P-Si Cells Performance, γ-radiation Effects, Electrical and Photovoltaic Characteristics solar cell, gamma radiation, spectral photo current.

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Bio-Oil Production from Pyrolysis of Coffee and Eucalyptus Sawdust in the Presence of 5% Hydrogen

Abstract In this paper, we have done some important analysis of bio-oil obtained from the pyrolysis of coffee and eucalyptus sawdust in the presence of 5% Hydrogen. The bio-oil was obtained in one step pyrolysis in which temperature of the system was kept 25ºC and then increased up to 850ºC. After pyrolysis the obtained dark sticky liquid (highly viscous bio-oil) was introduced to thermal cracking. During thermal cracking the bio-oil was condensed at two different temperatures 100ºC and 5ºC so we got two types of bio-oil, BHTT (bio-oil obtained at high temperature 100 ºC after thermal cracking) and BLTT (bio-oil obtained at low temperature 5ºC after thermal cracking). Then both types of bio-oil were distillated and analyzed in Gas chromatography and Mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection (GC×GC/TOFMS). Agriculture residue bio-oil and its thermal cracking fractions could be effectively characterized by GC/MS and GC×GC/TOFMS, where the light fraction was composed of a wide range of lower polarity compounds while heavy fraction had higher polarity compounds.

Keywords Chromatographic analysis, GC/MS, GC×GC/TOFMS, biomass pyrolysis, bio-oil production.

Abbreviations:

BESC: Bio-oil produced from Coffee and Eucalyptus Sawdust

BHTT: Bio-oil condensed at100ºC High Temperature after Thermal cracking

BLTT: Bio-oil condensed at 5ºC Low Temperature after Thermal cracking

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The effect of under sea level on the transmission of signals for FBG

Abstract The transmission and the reflection of Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) are calculated theoretically under ocean. The nonlinear effects appear on the reflectivity and the transmitivity of traveling signals. A full study for the performance of the nine apodization profiles for the FBG under the effect of temperature, pressure and water depth are investigated. Then, schedules have been done for the optimum values for the reflectivity of all types, selecting the appropriate profile which is the Sinc one giving about 99% reflectivity for the grating.

Keywords FBG, Transmission, Reflectivity.

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Adaptive Nonparametric CUSUM Control Chart with Variable Sampling Interval Strategy

Abstract In this paper, we propose a nonparametric CUSUM control chart for detecting a range of shifts in the location parameters based on previous research. This control chart is dynamically adaptive, ranks method-based nonparametric and self-starting; it can monitor various sizes of shifts in difference distributions simultaneously; and it can be used to monitor processes at the start-up stages. This control chart is designed with variable sampling interval technology, which makes it more intelligent and sensitive. Simulation study of reference parameters values and performance comparisons are introduced in detail, so as to conveniently apply this chart to practical production process monitoring. An illustrative chemical example is also present to demonstrate the well implementation of this chart.

Keywords Variable sampling interval, Adaptive control chart, CUSUM, Nonparametric scheme.

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Gap Functions and Error Bound to Set-Valued Variational Inequalities

Abstract In this paper, the gap function for set-valued variational inequalities is introduced and the finiteness of the gap function is discussed. Furthermore, under µ-strongly monotone condition, we obtain error bounds for set-valued variational inequalities, i.e. upper estimates forthe distance to the solution set of the variational inequalities.

Keywords variational inequalities, gap functions, set-valued maps, error bounds.

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Determinants of Loan Quality: Evidence from the Tunisian Banking Sector

Abstract This paper uses probit and ordered probit methods to examine the impact of banks’ policies in terms of cost efficiency, capitalization, liquidity, activity diversification, credit growth and profitability on the loan quality in the Tunisian banking sector after controlling for the effects of firm-specific characteristics and macroeconomic conditions. Using a data set with detailed information for more than 9,000 firms comprising the portfolios of the ten largest Tunisian banks, we show that banks which are cost inefficient, low capitalized and illiquid are more likely to have a lower quality of loans. However, activity diversification, bank size and profitability do not seem to offer an important contribution in explaining the evolution of loan quality. Finally, our findings highlight the importance of taking into account firm-specific characteristics and macroeconomic developments when assessing the loan quality of banks from a financial stability perspective.

Keywords bank specific factors, firm specific factors, loan quality, ordered probit, probit.

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Mathematical Analysis and Practical Applications of a Serial-Parallel Robot with Delta-Like Architecture

AbstractDelta robot is a mechanical design in a kind of parallel type. It is moved by three groups of power structures on the platform of active arms and passive arms led by the end of the platform equipped with the fourth axis at the end of the structure. In this paper, the serial-parallel design of a modified delta robot is proposed, which SolidWorks is employed for designing the mechanics. Forward and inverse kinematics are analyzed to establish the robotic arms, and the wiring hardware system is used to control the motors. To enhance the accuracies of the outputs of the motors, we employ the spherical bearings instead of the traditional ball joints. To verify the performances of the proposed designed delta robot, various tasks are introduced including drawing, playing dominos, objects classification based on image processing, and so on.

KeywordsRobotic arm, delta robot, forward and inverse kinematics, multi-axis robot control.

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Towards a Framework for Executives and Decision Makers to Discriminate Big Data Projects for International Development

Abstract— In the context of International Development, Big Data Projects are often ill defined with a clear mix of terminology with trendy words such as Apps, GIS, Open Data, etc. often leading to overestimated budgets, unnecessary computing resources and unrealistic social outcomes. In this paper, we propose a framework for Executives and Decision Makers to allow them to clearly discriminate Big Data Projects regardless to the technical details related to this new Technology. The focus in our framework is rather on the broader Context, Objectives and Intended Outcomes of Projects.

Keywords— Big Data, International Development, Decision Making Framework.

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The growth of carbon nanotubes & carbon nanofibers on cement admixture particles

Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) are beneficial reinforcement materials for high performance and multifunctional cement-based composites. However, it is difficult to uniformly disperse CNTs/CNFs in cement-based composite during the composite fabrication process due to CNTs/CNFs aggregation. The in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/mineral admixture provides a new method to solve this issue. This article summarizes the methods and theories of in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/mineral admixture, including chemical vapor deposition method and microwave irradiating conductive polymers method. Properties of the cement-based composites made from the CNTs/CNFs-grown cement/mineral admixture are presented. The issues about the in situ growth of CNTs/CNFs on cement/ mineral admixture that needed to be further studied are discussed.

Keywords Carbon nanotubes, Carbon nanofibers ,Cement-based composites ,Cement, Mineral admixture.

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Corrosion Behaviour of Room Temperature Cured Polysilazane-Derived Silica Coatings on Al 5086

Abstract Silica coatings from polysilazane precursors were prepared to protect aluminium substrates from corrosion. Polysilazane can be converted to silica by simple exposition to air or basic vapours and the properties of the synthesized film make this precursor a valuable choice to obtain solid, crack-free, highly adhesive and protective coatings. The optimal deposition, obtained at 15 cm min-1 of dip-coating withdrawal speed, 20% PHPS precursor in n-butyl ether, 24 hours of exposition to 10% ammonia vapours and 6 days of ageing in air, manages to slow down the corrosion process by three orders of magnitude, therefore providing a longer lasting commodity. Specimens have been characterized by IR and XPS spectroscopy, AFM imaging and electrochemical studies.

Keywords PHPS, Silica, Coating, Corrosion, Aluminium.

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Kinetic Modelling of the Adsorption Treatment of Waste Lubricating Oil using Activated Ukpor Clay (Bentonite)

Abstract The re-refining of waste lubricating oil using activated Ukpor clay as an adsorbent was investigated. Clay activation was performed using sulphuric acid (H2SO4) with equivalent concentrations varying between 0.5 – 2 mol/L at a constant temperature of 90oC for 3.5 hours. The adsorption process was studied over a fixed amount of adsorbent at ambient conditions. Adsorbent performance was determined by its effectiveness in enhancing the properties of the waste oil and in removing trace metal ions contained in them. Furthermore, the effect of contact time and the adsorption performance of the adsorbent in the recycling treatment of the lubricating oil were evaluated. The kinetic data were modelled using the Pseudo-first order, the Pseudo-second order, the intra particle diffusion and the Elovich kinetic models. Analysis carried out on the lubricating oil showed the presence of many heavy metal ions and trace elements. Ca, Pb and Zn had the highest concentrations of 804, 398 and 222 mg/L respectively, while Ba had the least concentration of 0.1 mg/L. However, with treatment using this adsorbent, the concentrations of Ca, Pb and Zn were found to considerably reduce to 3.6, 5.6 and 0.01 mg/L respectively. The concentration of Ba was equally found to reduce to 0.01 mg/L, wherein the clay sample treated with 2 mol/L H2SO4 gave the best result in terms of improvement in the properties of the lubricating oil as well as on the percentage removal of these heavy metals and trace elements. For best describing the process within the adsorbent and with a high correlation coefficient (R2 value > 0.999), kinetic data were best fitted by the Pseudo-second order kinetic model and this result indicates that this adsorbent provides a good medium for the re-refining of waste lubricating oil.

Keywords Clay; recycling; adsorption; lubricating oil; kinetic models.

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Retrofitting of RC Beam using Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite

Abstract Retrofitting is the modification of existing structure which may or may not be damaged to make them more resistant to external forces. The objectives like Upgraded loading requirements; damage by accidents and environmental conditions, rectification of initial design flaws, change of usage can be achieved by retrofitting. The solutions adopted are generally based on successful prior practice. It is necessary to take a decision whether to demolish a distressed structure or to restore the same for effective load carrying system. Many a times, the level of distress is such that with minimum restoration measures the structural component can be brought back to its normalcy and during such times retrofitting is preferred. One of the techniques of strengthening RC structural elements is through confinement with composite enclosure. FRP material, which are available in the form of sheet or laminates are used to enhance the flexural, shear, and axial load carrying capacity of these elements. The proposed technique consist of wrapping Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite mats on the shear and Flexural zones of the RC beam and studying their characteristics.

Keywords Epoxy Resin, Flexural strength, Glass fiber reinforced polymer, shear Strength, Woven mat.

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Behaviour of R.C Beam and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Beam for Shear Strength

AbstractFiber- reinforced polymer (FRP) application is a very effective way to repair strengthens structures that have become structurally weak over their life span. FRP repair systems provide an economically viable alternative to traditional repair systems and materials Experimental investigations on the shear behaviour of RC beams strengthened using continuous glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) sheets are carried out. Externally reinforced concrete beams with epoxy- bonded GFRP sheets were tested to failure using a symmetrical two point loading system. The strengthening of the beams is done with different amount and configuration of GFRP sheets. Experimental data on load, deflection and failure modes of each of the beams were obtained. The detail procedure and applications of GFRP sheets for strengthening of RC beams is also included. The effect of number of GFRP layers and its orientation on ultimate load carrying capacity and failure mode of the beams are investigated

Keywordsstrengthening, glass fiber composites, epoxy resin, reinforced concrete beam, shear force.

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The impact of the chemical insecticide Malyphos and the vegetable oil of Neem on the aphid

Abstract To see the impact of insecticide vegetable oil (Neem) on aphid of the green alfalfa, we conducted tests to compare with the synthetic product Malyphos most used by farmers in our region. Because of these, we treated the plants alfalfa infested by aphids with doses of product and the vegetable oil of Neem. In spring-summer or there is a significant number of plant louses and after a controlled time we determines the percentages dead of this parasite in order to obtaining the mortality according to time and dose of the synthetic product and of this oil. The comparison of the aphid mortality between the Malyphos product and the vegetable oil made it possible to reveal the role of this natural extracts on the limitation of manpower of these parasites and their possible use as plant health naturalness without side-effect on the human health and the environment.

Keywords aphid, chemical, insecticide, malyphos, mortality, Neem, vegetable.

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Smart Liquefied Petroleum Gas System

Abstract The motivation for our project is the need to save fuel. LPG is a non-renewable source of energy, hence it is important that we need to use it judiciously. It is observed that a single household sometimes has multiple gas connections. This is simply because they are not aware of their fuel consumption rate. Our idea addresses this problem. The proposed idea aims to make the household consumer aware of their usage and thereby helping to reduce the LPG consumption. The number of deaths due to explosion of gas cylinders has been increasing in recent years. Thus there is need for a system to detect and also prevent leakage of LPG. The proposed project also implements leak detection and intimates the house owner of the same.

Keywords Microcontroller, GSM Module, Sensors, Front-End Amplifier.

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Kinematics Analysis of a Novel 5-DOF Parallel Manipulator with Two Planar Limbs

Abstract It is significant to develop a limited-DOF parallel manipulator (PM) with high rigidity. However, the existing limited-DOF PMs include so many spherical joint which has less capability of pulling force bearing, less rotation range and lower precision under alternately heavy loads. A novel 5-DOF PM with two planar limbs is proposed and its kinematics is analyzed systematically. A 3-dimension simulation mechanism of the proposed manipulator is constructed and its structure characteristics are analyzed. The kinematics formulae for solving the displacement, velocity, acceleration of the platform, the active legs are established. An analytic example is given for solving the kinematics of the proposed manipulator and the analytic solved results are verified by the simulation mechanism. It provides the theoretical and technical foundations for its manufacturing, control and application.

Keywords kinematics, limited-DOF, parallel manipulator, planar limbs, singularity

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Development and experimentation of atelemedicine solution built around a digital stethoscope. The “BlueHealth” project

Abstract In this paper, we assess the viability of a solution using a digital stethoscope, together with cordless Bluetooth technology for the comfort of use and the telecommunication means and technology to offer a cost / performance ratio that makes it applicable to Doctor markets (eStetho). We also assess the development of a telemedicine solution: BlueHealth project, in relation with this electronic stethoscope. The described solution allows for: 1) Collection, cleaning and record of physiological data in streaming mode; with primary focus on auscultation sounds for lung and heart analysis; 2) Formatting xml based metadata to carry administrative information related to the patient, to the practitioner, to the device, to the institution, etc., together with physiological data; 3) Transmission of data (protection, confidentiality, access rights, sharing, etc.); 4) Processing (signal processing) of the data for diagnostic help; and 5) Multimedia communication, with audio over IP and display of the record on IPTouch or any other xml compatible device.

Keywords Telemedicine; Auscultation; Stethoscope; Use case; Bluetooth.

Authors contributionsThis work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Authors EA, SR and RG designed and wrote the project. Authors EA, SR and RG managed the development of the project and the experimentation. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Hierarchical visualization techniques: a case study in the domain of meta-analysis

Abstract Meta-analysis is a probabilistic technique which groups results from several studies addressing the same topic and produces a result that summarizes the whole. Results generated are graphically displayed without providing interactivity with the user or reproducing a friendly, easy to comprehend interface. In order to obtain a visual exploratory analysis of the most satisfactory results there are Information Visualization techniques which can be applied to map data graphically aiming to broaden the user cognition. This paper presents an analysis of hierarchical information visualization techniques to determine which of them can best represent a data structure, develops meta-analysis and applies information visualization techniques, obtained from the analysis, to the meta-analysis results obtained through the Software R.

Keywords Information Visualization Techniques, Bifocal Tree, Funnel Plot, Dynamic Visualization, Graphic Design, Hierarchy Visualization.

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Network Nodes for Smart Thermal Grids

Abstract Analogous to the smart grid in electrical context, we have developed a smart thermal grid providing features to supply grid network partners either with heat or to consume superfluous thermal energy. A local communication and supply network connects several customers with each other. Depending on offer or demand, the transport medium can be transmitted bidirectional between interconnected network node stations. The network for information exchange and trading operates parallel to the thermal supply network.

Our developed network nodes consist of a hydraulic module for transportation, measurement and control technology as well as a microcomputer for advanced tasks and communication. Furthermore, the microcomputer provides a swarm intelligence controller. Our controller is responsible for data communication, processing network events and realizing a strategy for optimized network operation. Network nodes are able to optimize the network in a decentralized manner. Network nodes are devices that manage all transport-, measuring and control tasks. This paper gives a brief insight into our development efforts to the hardware and software platform of our microcomputer as well as the routing strategy based on ant colony optimization.

Keywords Smart Thermal Grid, Smart Grid, Swarm Intelligence Controller, Ant Colony Optimization

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The Effect of Different 2, 4-D Doses on Callus Induction and Chromosomal Structure in Maize (Zea Mays L.)

Abstract This research in which the matured embryos of 10 registered common corn varieties grown in Turkey (Pioneer 31N27, Pioneer 31P41, Pioneer 3223, Pioneer 34N24, ADA 8924, DKC 6022, BC 666, TECTOR, ADA 523 and HELEN) were used as plant materials was carried out in Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, Turkey. In the stage of in vitro of this research which was arranged in vitro and in vivo media, the effect on callus induction and plant regeneration in 6 different varieties of 2,4-D doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg/l) through callus culture was investigated. In the stage of in vivo, samples from the root tips composed of the callus of all maize varieties were taken, and the changes observed in the chromosomal numbers in maize lines were evaluated. As a result of the microscopic analyses of the root tips obtained through the application of 2,4-D auxin in different corn varieties in different doses, changes were observed in the chromosomal numbers of Pioneer 31N27 (2n=18), Pioneer 3223 (2n=19) and Pioneer 34N24 (2n=19) maize varieties. Mitotic anomaly observed through the application of 2,4-D was established as aneuploidy (the change of the chromosomal number in genome) and it was found to form as the decrease of the chromosomal number (hipoploidy). According to the data found, the dose of 2,4-D to be used in the transgenic maize producing studies to be utilized in Turkey was determined to be 2 mg/l providing the highest callus formation ratio but causing no chromosomal deviations.

Keywords Zea mays, Corn, Maize, Callus Induction, Chromosomal Number.

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Low Complex OFDM Synchronization in Power Line Communication for Flight Control System in Aircraft

Abstract The flight control system (FCS) over power line communication (PLC) is subject to strong real time constraints and harsh aircraft operating conditions. Then, low complex and accurate synchronization procedure have to be adapted. In this paper, we propose a synchronization procedure performed in two phases and we focus on the operating phase with a synchronization using the received data to estimate the sampling frequency offset. This estimation is performed by using two estimators based on the maximum likelihood principle. The first estimator performs the estimation on one orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission symbol. The second estimator performs the estimation on 20 successive OFDM symbols and uses the estimation of the previous estimator. The performances of the estimator are compared to the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB). The proposed synchronization procedure reached the CRLB and satisfies the FCS constraints over PLC.

Keywords PLC, OFDM, avionics, aircraft, sampling frequency synchronization, Cramér-Rao lower bound, maximum likelihood, safety critical systems, HVDC network.

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Big Data and Apache Spark: A Review

Abstract Big Data is currently a very burning topic in the fields of Computer Science and Business Intelligence, and with such a scenario at our doorstep, a humungous amount of information waits to be documented properly with emphasis on the market. By market, we mean the current technologies in use, the current prevalent tools, and the companies playing an imperative role in taming the data with such a colossal outreach.

Keywords Big Data, Cloud, Apache, Hadoop, Spark, Analytics.

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Tumors of the Right Atrium – A Review of cases operated in Department of Cardiac Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, between 2008 and 2015

Abstract Cardiac tumors, especially those of the right atrium (RA), are not prevalent. The most common tumor of RA is myxoma which must be differentiated with other neoplastic tumors and thrombi. The most important role in diagnostics plays echocardiography and histopathological examination of removed masses. Other diagnostic methods also deliver additional information useful in therapeutic process. Nine cases of tumors of RA operated through median sternotomy both electively and non-electively, between 2008 and 2015, were analyzed in the present study. The rate of myxomae and thrombi was higher than expected. Also operative outcome was found to be worse in non-elective patients. Although due to a small number of analyzed patients, further studies including multicenter trials are necessary. The fact that fast diagnostics enabling optimal timing and type of the surgery is essential for good therapeutic results is undeniable. One of the reasons which may delay a proper diagnosis is the fact that tumors of RA do not have specific clinical presentation and are quite rare.

Keywords Cardiac surgery, Myxoma, Right atrium, Thrombus, Tumor.

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Ambient air mercury species (TGM, RGM, GEM) concentration study during mid-winter~mid-spring season at a traffic site

Abstract The main purpose of this study was to monitor ambient air mercury species (TGM, RGM, GEM) of Hung-Kuang traffic area at sampling site during mid-winter~mid-spring season. In addition, four-stage gold amalgamation and denuder samplers were used to collect the ambient air mercury species concentrations, respectively. Moreover, cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CVAFS) was directly used to detect the mercury TGM and RGM concentrations in this study.

The result indicated that: 1). The average ratio for RGM concentrations out of the total gaseous mercury concentration was about 1.65% at the traffic sampling site. 2) The average TGM concentration values obtained in this study were 6630 (pg/m3) which is second to China average 9800 (pg/m3) when compared with the other countries during year 2010~2013. In addition, Canada showed the average lowest RGM concentrations when Compared the other world areas during year of 2014~2015. The average RGM concentrations ratios for this study (average 91.8 pg/m3) to Canada were about 73.4 during years of 2014~2015. 3) The results indicated that the correlation coefficients among total gaseous mercury (TGM), reaction gaseous mercury (RGM), gaseous element mercury GEM and meteorological conditions such as temperature and wind speed were low correlated related during mid-winter~mid-spring season at this traffic sampling site. 4) Statistical method (Mann-Whitney U statistical) results revealed that there were significant differences in the mean concentrations values for the ambient air TGM, RGM and TGM were the Hung-Kuang sampling periods at this traffic sampling site

Keywords denuder, four-stage gold amalgamation, gaseous element mercury, reactive gaseous mercury, total gaseous mercury.

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Image Restoration Using a Combination of Blind and Non-Blind Deconvolution Techniques

Abstract— One of the important implementations in image-processing field is the image restoration. Image restoration deals with the recovery of an original image from a degraded image using a mathematical model of degradation and restoration for image. Image restoration is becoming more and more important in the image-processing field, and it is very important in many applications like medical, satellite and photography. In spite of the various existing solutions available to image restoration, there is always a need for more efficient methods. In this paper, several restoration and deconvolution techniques, experimented and tested, we used both blind and non-blind techniques. Then we propose a combination between blind and non-blind techniques in order to improve the quality of the restored image. Several types of noise are added to the image after it has been blurred. We have tested the behavior of the different filters and techniques in removing each type of noise. The evaluation of the filters behaviors and the conclusion are done based on various metrics like PSNR, MSE, RMSE and IEF.

Keywords Image processing, Image restoration, blind and non-blind techniques, Noise, Metrics.

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Sunday, 1 May 2016

IJOER: Volume-2, Issue-4, April 2016

Dynamic analyses of a flat plate and a beam subjected to a moving load

Electron-acoustic solitons and double layers in a plasma system with Tsallis distributed hot electrons

Abstract A theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of electron acoustic solitary waves and double layers in an unmagnetized plasma whose constituents are cold electron fluid, hot electrons obeying Tsallis distribution and stationary ions. The Sagdeev potential approach is employed to carry out the analysis. The amplitude and nature of electron-acoustic solitary waves (EASWs) and electron-acoustic double layers (EADLs) are found to be extremely sensitive to the degree of nonextensivity. It is found that the present plasma model supports only rarefactive solitons and double layers depending on the q nonextensive parameter. The investigation shows that solitary structure ceases to exist when the parameter q crosses a certain limit.

Keywords Electron acoustic wave, Solitons, Double layer, Tsallis distribution.

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The Effect of Type Two Diabetes Mellitus on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Activity and its Correlation with HbA1c in Iraqi Patients

Abstract Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic disorders, characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin action, insulin secretion or both. Increasing evidence suggests that the oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The current study includes (130) T2DM patients (group P) [51 males and 79 females with an ages range (35 to 55) and ages mean 49.89 years], they are sub-grouped into three categories according to their HbA1c value. Patients with HbA1c less than 7 are considered as good controlled diabetic patients (30 patients) (group P1), while patients with HbA1c between 7 and 8 were considered as medium controlled diabetic patients (40 patients) (group P2), and the patients whom their HbA1c more than 8 are considered as poorly controlled diabetic patients (60 patients) (group P3). The results of patients group were compared with control healthy subjects (35 subjects) (group C) [14 males and 21 Females were with an age range from 35 to 55 years and ages mean 45.51 years]. Patients and controls were characterized in terms of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum levels of Cu (μg/L), Zn (μg/L), malondialdehyde (MDA) (mmol/L) and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) activity (U/ml). The HbA1c has been found to be significantly higher in diabetic patients group (P) in comparison to group C. Serum Zn level has been found to be significantly lesser in group P in comparison to group C. Serum Cu level showed an increase in group P, although it is not significance in comparison to group C. Serum SOD activity shown a significant decrease in group P in comparison to group C. Serum MDA level showed a significantly higher value in diabetic patients group P in comparison to group C. The serum Zn was decreased as HbA1c increased i.e. serum Zn level in group C was higher than patients groups, and its value in group P1 higher than group P2 and that was higher than group P3, while serum Cu level was increased as HbA1c increase, i.e. serum Cu level in group P3 higher than group P2 and that higher than group P1, while group C gave the maximum value. The serum SOD activity was decreased as HbA1c increased, i.e. SOD activity was found to be significantly higher in group P1 in comparison with group P2 and P3, while serum MDA level in group P3 was significantly higher than group P2, and P1.

Keywords EC-SOD, hyperglycemia, MDA, SOD, T2DM.

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Hydrodynamic torque converter operating under dynamic load

Abstract Unsteady interaction phenomena created by the influence of the blade spacing have been reported in earlier experiments and CFD. However cyclic load changes in start-up and slow-down of the hydrodynamic torque converter operation have been beyond access to the current flow field calculation methods due to the extensive computer run time and memory requirements in the application of time dependent Navier-Stokes solvers to acceleration and deceleration. Therefore computations based on the use of 1D mean-line flow simulation supported by optimised flow correction coefficients tuned in rig-test experiments enable to obtain solutions for engineering-type technical problems.

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Characterizations of Type-2 Harmonic Curvatures and General Helices in Euclidean space E⁴

Abstract In this study, we introduce quaternionic type-2 Harmonic Curvatures and General Helices according to Frenet frame in 4-dimensional Euclidean Space and investigate its properties for two cases. In the first case; we use a constant angle between a unit and fixed direction vector field and the first relatively Frenet frame vector field of the curve, that is given in the paper.

where is the real quaternion inner product. Since the relatively Frenet frame vector field of the curve makes a constant angle with the unit and fixed direction vector field U, we call this curve as a General helix in 4-dimensional Euclidean Space . And then, in the other case, we define new type-2 harmonic curvature functions and we give a vector field which we call Darboux vector field for General helix. And then we obtain some characterizations for General helix in terms of type-2 harmonic curvature functions and the Darboux vector field .

Keywords Euclidean spaces, General helix, type-2 harmonic curvatures, Quaternion algebra, Quaternionic frame.

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Hydrothermal growth of nanostructured Zinc oxide

Abstract Hydrothermal method was used to prepare ZnO nanostructure. This study haven’t used any catalyst or buffer layer before the reaction. The process has taken place inside Teflon lined stainless steel autoclave with volume 100 ml (homemade). ZnO nanotubes, lettuce leaf nanostructure, and nanosticks were successfully synthesized using ZnO nanoparticles (20-30 nanometers) and NaOH (concentrations 6M) which was the starting materials for the chemical reaction under stirring. The suspension was transferred into a Teflon lined sealed stainless steel autoclave and kept at 70 0C for 24, 48, and 72 hour. The influence of the time reaction of synthesis process on the morphology, the crystallinity and structural properties are studied by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), the experimental pattern of the films show that diffraction peaks can be assigned to the Wurtzite hexagonal-shaped ZnO as shown in the FE-SEM pictures, also the morphology of the films studied by atomic force microscope (AFM) shows that the prepared thick films have high roughness specially for the powder prepared 48 h .

Keywords ZnO, nanotubes, lettuce leaf structure, nanosticks, dislocation density.

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Information Disseminated with Technology Firms on Social Media

Abstract Technology startups going public to build a sustainable company that is public, as we see hot technology initial public offerings (IPOs) – Twitter, Alibaba, and the like-went to public in past years. We examine the IT-Producing IPOs versus IT-Consuming IPOs on their first-day returns and long-run underperformance. We investigate the social media content on IT-Producing IPOs versus that on IT-Consuming IPOs and find that IT-Producing IPOs are actively using Twitter to inform consumers while IT-Consuming IPOs are tweeting to getting feedbacks and inputs from consumers. In addition, IT-Producing IPOs dominate over IT-Consuming IPOs in terms of the attention attracted from social media users as measured by the volume of the social media content posted on them

Keywords social media content, initial public offering, technologies.

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Discovery of fraud in Medical Insurance

Abstract The term insurance fraud refers to the commission of any act with the intent to obtain an outcome that is favorable, but fraudulent during an insurance claim. Including single prescription medicines is extremely high, card repeatedly within a certain amount of time for medicine, etc. This paper is based on methods of hierarchical cluster analysis and generalized squared distance discriminate method to record medical coverage of transaction data at outliers for finding out the corresponding abnormal record which indicates potential fraud.

Keywords medical insurance fraud, hierarchical cluster analysis, training sample, generalized square distance discrimination.

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An empirical analysis about forecasting Tmall air-conditioning sales using time series model

Abstract Time series model is a hotspot in the research of statistics. On November 11, 2015, Tmall platform’s turnover was more than $91.2 billion which caused the attention of scholars both at home and abroad. So this paper aims to forecast sales of Tmall, which is helpful to the enterprises. Research methods are ARIMA model and VAR model. The first model is single-variable model and the later is multi-variable model. In the study, ARIMA model makes the sequence smooth by using two difference operation. In VAR model, five explanatory variables are transformed into one main component. By contrast, VAR model does not give detailed accurate prediction, but ARIMA model does. Therefore, single-variable time series model is more suitable for sales forecast than multi-variable model.

Keywords ARIMA model, VAR model, Sales forecast.

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Diffusion of Toluene and Ethylene in ZSM-12 zeolite: Experimental and numerical study

Abstract The Na+ and Ag+ forms of ZSM-12 zeolite microporous were used as effective adsorbents for hydrocarbons trap. Diffusion of a single adsorbed component including ethylene as a light molecule or toluene a heavier one inside a narrow one-dimensional channel was studied. Experimental desorption profiles for these two gases desorbing from both Ag-ZSM-12 and Na-ZSM-12 were obtained at very high heating rates comparable with the one observed during the cold start of a combustion engine. Numerical simulation based on Fick’s law and a transient diffusion boundary value yielded a good fitting of these experimental results. For both ZSM-12 forms considered in this study, diffusion activation energies Eω and EΞ for toluene are much higher than those for ethylene. The values of these parameters are higher for the Ag+ exchanged zeolite than for Na-ZSM-12 and related to the presence of strong Lewis acid sites in the former material. In addition each activation energy for Na-ZSM-12 and Ag-ZSM-12 decreases at increasing heating rate. This was explained by thermal vibrations of the zeolite lattice which allow higher diffusivity at high temperature.

Keywords single component, single file diffusion, temperature-programmed desorption, ZSM-12

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Missing Data Imputation Methods in Classification Contexts

Abstract We examine different imputation methods that deal with missing data in classification contexts and compare the performance of the methods with an experiment study. We investigate the performance of the methods under the assumption that data are missing at random. We find that, as the number of missing holes in data increases, the imputation methods deteriorate and the misclassification rates of the imputation methods increase. We also examine the scenario where missing data are due to strategic behaviors of data providers. We find that imputation methods play an important role at deterring strategic behaviors of data providers and minimizing the misclassification rate.

Keywords missing data, imputation method, classification.

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Monitoring of Bubble Formation during the Boiling Process Using Acoustic Emission Signals

Abstract The bubble cavitation phenomenon in two phase gas/liquid systems happens in several hydraulic components, for example, valves and centrifugal pumps. This is a common occurrence, leading to a drop in hydraulic performance, reduction of equipment efficiency, possible damage to the structure of pump and valve components. In addition, it causes high vibration and noise and solid surface erosion. This study identifies the feasibility of the use of the Acoustic Emission technology to detect and monitor bubble formation throughout boiling processes. To undertake this task a special purpose test-rig was employed. It was concluded that bubble formation is detectable with AE technology and there is a clear correlation between increasing AE levels and the bubble formation during the boiling process.

Keywords Acoustic Emission (AE), Vibration and Noise, Solid Surface Erosion Bubble Formation, Boiling.

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Development of collagen-EDC scaffolds for skin tissue engineering: physicochemical and biological characterization

AbstractA leading consequence of burns is the loss of large extensions of skin. Thus, skin tissue engineering has been increased and promoted development of biomimetic skin scaffolds. Type I collagen is one of the most materials used in tissue engineering due to its biological characteristics. However, the applications of collagen as biomaterial are severely limited by its reduced physicochemical and mechanical properties, such as high susceptibility to enzymatic degradation in vivo and low thermo stability. To enhance collagen properties, crosslinked collagen scaffolds at different concentrations of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) were prepared by freeze-drying technique. The effect of crosslinking and concentration on scaffolds physicochemical and biological behavior was evaluated. Scaffolds morphology was observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy, showing in all cases an appropriate microstructure for biological applications. Differential Scanning Calorimetric showed an increase in shrinkage temperature (TS) with increase in EDC concentration. Infrared Spectroscopy suggested that the secondary structure of collagen is not affected after the crosslinking. Enzymatic degradation test indicated that scaffolds treated with EDC dissolved slowly in enzymatic solution (just 12% of degradation after 96 h). Cell viability and attachment tests suggested that EDC treatment do not affect the excellent biological characteristics of collagen.

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Automatic Train Control Algorithms with Regulation Restrictions Adaptive to System State Changes

Abstract Centralized automatic train control algorithm is proposed which allows effective adjustment of each train’s departure and running times or intervals when there are unscheduled delays. The novelty lies in that it employs three sets of methods, called regulative characteristics, which contain relationships between regulation restrictions (minimal station dwell times and train running times). These relationships are obtained a priori from the simulation of train circulation on the detailed railway or metro line model, saving later onboard real-time processing requirements, which is especially useful for those train control systems which are being only partially modernized. In the traditional algorithms these regulation restrictions are frequently considered fixed, while the changes of system’s state do affect them, so the usage of the values recurrently updated by the regulative characteristics allows to have more flexible running and station times for every train on the line. The efficiency of the new algorithm is additionally increased by the usage of forecasting of station dwell times and train running times based on the history of these values for each train or station. Proposed algorithm decreases the quantity of undesired stops between stations, allowing to save energetic resources spent on repeated train acceleration and to raise, in general, the quality of the transportation process algorithm has been tested on Mexico Metro Line simulator confirming efficiency increase of 3% for the worst case scenario and up to 10% for the best cases (busiest state of the line plus additional temporal speed limits).

Keywords— Railway transportation, Automatic Train Control, Metro, Regulation Algorithms, Centralized Control, Forecasting.

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On magnetite concentrate grains with respect to their use in concrete

Abstract Magnetic iron oxide grains and/or micrograins embedded into concrete are suggested for pH-protection of concrete. To this aim a phenomenological formula for the change in pH of the water solution after contacting iron oxides was derived. It has a broader meaning because it refers to all materials for which surface electric potential varies with pH of the contacting solution. It may be used to design a suitable composition of the mortar. In addition, the important property of magnetite concentrate grains that they may increase compressive strength of the mortar is shown. In the study, all the mortar under consideration was made from Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R, natural aggregate - quartz sand fraction 0‑2 mm and magnetic material was magnetite concentrate supplied by Magnetite‑Grochow Sp. z o. o.

Keywords compressive strength, concrete, magnetite concentrate, magnetite grains, pH value.

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Adaptive Backstepping Tuning Functions Control Design for Industrial Robot Manipulators

Abstract In this paper, an adaptive backstepping control design with tuning functions and K-filters for robot manipulators is developed. A stronger stability and convergence performance of the designed control in comparison with backstepping observer is achieved despite the presence of disturbances, parameter uncertainties, system nonlinearities for a real-time system of a single-link flexible-joint manipulator.

Keywords Tuning functions, K-filters, Adaptive Observer Backstepping, Robot Manipulator Control.

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Implementation of AES algorithm

Abstract Data security has become one of the most important concerns in the recent times. This has led to an increase in the importance of cryptography of the electronic data. Cryptography is the process of protecting digital information. Though there are numerous encryption systems used in security systems by various organizations, for the wider use, a particular encryption method is used as a standard. The internationally accepted and acclaimed algorithm is Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Here in this design we are implementing the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) with a key length of 128 bits using Verilog hardware description language (HDL).

Keywords Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), cryptography , Cipher, Encryption, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), Hardware description language(HDL), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) , Verilog.

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Effects of curing systems and light units on cytotoxicity of dental composites

Abstract— The objective of this study was to examine and compare the cytotoxicity behavior of commercial two restorative (light-cured) and three adhesive composites (dual-cured) polymerized by using two different light curing units (LCU). Commercial composites Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme XT, Rely X Arc, Rely X U100 and Variolink II were polymerized using different light densities of halogen (H) and Light Emitting Diod (LED) curing units. After the polymerization process samples sterilized under UV light for 15 minutes. Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Minimal Essential Medium (DMEM) containing 200 µL of serum was placed in 96 well cell plates and samples were added in the wells. They were incubated 5% CO2 incubator for 48 hours at 37°C. Sample surface area/solution volume was adjusted to 2.5 cm2/ml. Cytotoxicity of samples was examined by the extraction method and the results were evaluated using the MTS test. The extracts of the samples were collected for 24 hours and incubated in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells (MFCs). The data was analyzed with the SPSS statistics program. Samples polymerized by H light source were generally cytotoxic than the samples polymerized by LED light source. Rely X Arc in dual-cure system is the most biocompatible material and Variolink II-LED combination is the most cytotoxic one. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference between the cytotoxicity levels of composites using H and LED light sources (p>0.05).This study showed that the curing treatment used power density LED affects biocompatibility positively and nano-structures increase the biocompatibility.

Keywords— Cytotoxicity, dental composites, light curing, dual curing, halogen, LED, light curing units.

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Methodologies and Results of a Two -Year Project Promoting Integrated Pest Management and Chemical Use Reduction to Promote Science and Improve Health

Abstract Researchers from three universities worked with multiple 6-12 grade teachers from 2013 to 2015to engage them and their students in developing science projects and learning applied science concepts. These projects focused on integrated pest management (IPM) and chemical use reduction (CUR) in the home. The objectives of the program consisted of increasing awareness about IPM and CUR, and promoted inquiry based leaning, while employing a new model of engagement in the classroom (i.e., liberating structures). Arm 1 of the program first engaged a large group of teachers (i.e., 75) in two-day trainings. A selected group of trained teachers then joined with researchers and trained graduate students to actively engage their 6-12 grade students in the classroom. Arm 2 involved the development and implementation of a more focused 10-day IPM and CUR curriculum to be used in the classroom, along with a 4-hr online training for teachers designed to facilitate its implementation. In an effort to create a balanced and comprehensive experience for those who participated, researchers from graduate science and communication, and K-12 STEM programs composed the project team. This article reports on the methodologies employed, experiences and overall metrics of the program. Recommendations are given to improve the process and the results based on participant experiences. Useful information is provided for those in the field planning to better engage the community and in particular 6-12 grade students in science and health education. Curriculum and other materials (i.e., brochures) are available at no cost online in English and Spanish.

Keywords Liberating Structures (LS), Science Education, K-12 Science, Integrated Pest management (IPM), Chemical Use Reduction (CUR), Community Outreach.

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Influence of Operating Conditions of the Steel Cord on the Structure and Selected Mechanical and Technological Properties of High Carbon Steel

Abstract When buying tires, we would like them to serve us as long as possible. Experts of the independent organisation Dekra, based on case studies found that after six years the risk of tire failure increases drastically, which is why they recommend replacement of tires after six years of operation at the latest. The results of the presented studies have shown that operation of the car tires in such extreme conditions as continuous contact with ground, frequent braking and repeated hitting against bumps in the road leads to delamination of the steel material of belting and decrease in its mechanical properties by about 35-48% compared to the reference material.

Keywords Eutectoid Steel, Cord, Belt, Non-Metallic Inclusions

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Cascaded Model-Free Fuzzy Control: an Application to the Coupled Tanks System

Abstract This report proposes a design methodology for cascaded model-free fuzzy control systems. The ordinary Mamdani approach is modified in order to use expert knowledge for variable set-point control without any need of the system model. The methodology is successfully tested in a sub-actuated, naturally delayed setup, known as the coupled tanks system, where the water level is maintained at different set points, both in simulation and in real time.

Keywords Cascade Systems, Coupled Tanks, Fuzzy Control, Variable Set Point Control.

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On The Reproductive Number of HIV/AIDS Patients in Nigeria

Abstract This paper presents the basic reproductive number of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria as well as endemic prevalence using the SIR model developed by Mckendric (2001).

The Basic reproduction number Ro determines if the disease is transmissible or it will die a natural death, and the endemic prevalence gives a clue on the rate of transmission of the disease. This study obtained both the Ro and the endemic prevalence as a tool for controlling the endemic in an SIR model of disease dynamics.

Keywords Endemic prevalence, Basic Reproductive number, Disease transmission, Disease dynamics

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Sensitivity Analysis for Prediction of Bead Geometry using Plasma Arc Welding in Bellows Segment

Abstract The automated welding systems, have received much attention in recent years, because they are highly suitable not only to increase the quality and productivity, but also to decrease manufacturing time and cost for a given product. To get the desired quality welds in automated welding system is challenging, an algorithm is needed that has complete control over the relevant process parameters in order to obtain the required bead geometry. However, there is still the lack of algorithms that can predict bead geometry over a wide range of welding conditions. Therefore, to solve this problem, this paper investigated the relationship between the process parameters and the bead geometry in Plasma arc welding (PAW). The quantitative effect of process parameters on bead geometry was calculated using sensitivity analysis. From the experimental results, the developed algorithm can predict the bead dimensions within 0–10% accuracy from analyzed parameters. It also showed that the change of process parameters affects the bead width relatively stronger than bead height.

Keywords Plasma Arc Welding, Bellows Segment, Sensitivity Analysis, Factorial Design, Optimization, Bead Geometry.

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Preservation of cardiopulmonary blocks: A real and interactive biomaterial for teaching and learning lung plethysmography and mechanical ventilation

Abstract The introduction of biomaterials to thoracic training has an important impact on human health and has significant economic benefits. We present a real, reusable and low-cost biomaterial that is a useful tool in teaching and learning training programs for lung plethysmography and mechanical ventilation procedures. At the end of non-cardiopulmonary-related research studies, five cardiopulmonary blocks were harvested from rabbits (3), a dog (1) and a cat (1). Cardiopulmonary blocks were preserved with McCormick’s solution and impregnated with glycerin-phenic acid. Subsequently, the cardiopulmonary blocks were connected to a volume ventilator to ensure good lung compliance and that there was no leakage. An acrylic plethysmograph was designed, and cardiopulmonary blocks were placed through an endotracheal tube and connected to a ventilator. Lungs were insufflated under four different inspiratory pressures (10, 12, 14 and 16 cmH2O), and respiratory parameters were calculated. Although it was necessary to significantly increase the inspired tidal volume and the compliance decreased (ANOVA + Student’s t: p<0.05) compared to the values required for blowing non-preserved cardiopulmonary blocks, all the preserved cardiopulmonary blocks maintained their structural integrity, and the lungs were shown to be elastic pieces with smooth texture, along with distension and insufflation capacities. This biomaterial was shown to be functional and reusable for the teaching and learning of lung plethysmography and mechanical ventilation practices.

Keywords Cardiopulmonary Block, Preservation, Biomaterial, Plethysmography, Education.

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Engineering Journal: October Issue 2017

TOC’S Five-Step Cycle: An Approach to Instant Results and Cultural Change Abstract — The Theory of Constraints (TOC) offers an interestin...