Tuesday, 6 December 2016

Engineering Journal: November 2016

Engineering Journal IJOER published its volume-2, issue-11, November 2016 Issue.

Radio Frequency Identification Technology in Libraries

Abstract This paper is a baseline document to review the latest technologies, algorithms and available hardware that can be used to build and automate a library system using Radio Frequency Identification technology as the infrastructure, allowing the librarian to track and manage real-life objects. The purpose is to review the current research that have been accomplished around this area in order to produce the best possible design, and implementation of a robust solution with maximum efficiency to automate a library system. The article first provides an overview of the radio frequency identification technology, its history, radio frequency principle, and how distance and frequency can affect the signal coverage distance. Then radio frequency identification structure and types are explained, after that the paper evaluates the latest researches in the radio frequency identification infrastructure and middleware. Finally the issue of radio signal collision is discussed, and corresponding anti-collision algorithms are briefly explained.

Keywords Active Passive RFID, Far Field, Near Field, RFID in libraries.

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Development of Fire Educational Systems by Specific Core Competency Indicators based on the Career Progression Management of Fire Departments

Abstract Firefighting work is one of the most urgent, dangerous, and high stress types of government work. Due to state policies and financial limitations, the few new firefighting personnel in Taiwan each year have resulted in a substantial shortage in firefighting personnel.

The hierarchical analysis method and structural equation modeling were employed to build Taiwan’s entry-level firefighting personnel competency indicators. These indicators can be incorporated into the oral and written test-oriented state examination given by the Ministry of Examination or adopted by the government authority for Education and training, in order to enhance the effectiveness of screening and to recruit well-qualified personnel that meet the expectation of society.

The present study established a set of core competency indicators covering seven constructs, which in turn contain 46 factors in total. The experts ranked the importance of the seven constructs from high to low as follows: professional firefighting knowledge, firefighting work skills, fire engine and equipment operation, self-management, firefighter physical fitness, firefighting practical experience, and interpersonal skills.

Keywords Firefighting Education, Core competencies, firefighting personnel competency, Structural equation model.

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Needs analysis and construction of a simulation mannequin for diagnosing head and neck cancer

Abstract Besides imaging, the central step in diagnostics of head and neck cancer is biopsy and rigid triple endoscopy, a routine procedure for over 50 years. However, the assessment of this procedure in terms of comparative studies has so far been unfeasible for ethical and practical reasons. The goal set was to construct a simulation mannequin of lifelike synthetic tissue for the evaluation and training of triple endoscopy. Paired up as a tandem, mechanical engineering and medicine postgraduates captured the work environment and gross steps of the procedure by means of observations in the surgery room, creation of a workflow and brainstorming in a multidisciplinary team. The further specifications, derived from in-depth interviews with eight ENT senior physicians, were as well incorporated into a quality function deployment (QFD), that resulted in focus on realistic, computed tomography (CT) scan based anatomy, lifelike haptics and optics of mucous membrane surfaces. These priorities lead to the decision to construct a modular triple endoscopy simulator which was integrated into a suitable mannequin already available on the market. As triple endoscopy was consistently judged by 100% of the interviewed ENT senior physicians as a challenging procedure the project was considered to be meaningful. The first consideration was to assess the procedure, which is now possible, but during the project time we decided to alter the weighting in the direction of simulator based training.

Keywords Quality Function Deployment, high-fidelity simulator, head and neck cancer, training, triple endoscopy, multi disciplinary engineering, difficult airway management.

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Synthesis of Discrete Steady-State Error Free Modal State Controller Based on Predefined Pole Placement Area and Measurable State Variables

Abstract The entire case study aims to present a procedure for synthesis of discrete steady-state error free modal state controller, based on predefined pole placement area and measurable state variables, suggesting a solution for the so called pole placement problem (PPP) (known also as pole assignment problem - PAP). It will introduce a research on how the suggested solution will result in modeling of dual-mass DC electromechanical plant.

Keywords controller synthesis, discrete modal state controller, modal control, state feedback, state space, state space model, pole assignment, pole placement

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Glycerol sorbent selection and optimized conditions for ethyl biodiesel purification by response surface methodology

Abstract The feasibility of using alternative and commercial sorbents for dry washing biodiesel was quantitatively examined. Rice husk ash (RHA) and Amberlite showed similar performance and their applications in adsorbing glycerol were determined by response surface methodology. A 22 face centered composite design was employed to analyze the combined effect of sorbent concentration and temperature on glycerol removal. The statistical analysis indicated that levels of 2.1% (RHA) and 3.7% (Amberlite) at 30 ºC maximized the glycerol removal with minimum loss of adsorbate. Under optimal conditions, the sorbents were used for purifying ethyl biodiesel samples from palm kernel oil. Both sorbents were quite efficient in removing glycerol, providing samples containing glycerol values lower than 0.01% that meet the required standard to be used as a fuel. The high quality of the purified samples was also demonstrated by the ethyl esters contents (> 98.0%), viscosity (< 4.0 mm2 s-1) and density (@ 867 kg m-3) values. Rice husk ash was also able to remove monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols, thus its structure, composition and adsorption kinetics were further assessed to better understand its property as sorbent

Keywords Biodiesel, dry washing, glycerol, sorbent, factorial design.

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Intelligent Idle Speed Control for Modern Intelligent Automobiles

Abstract The paper presents an application of a recently developed Fuzzy logic controller for time-delay systems to the idle speed control (ISC) problem in spark ignition (SI) internal combustion (IC) engines.

Automobiles spark ignition engines spend a large percentage of their time operating in the idle speed region. The engine idle speed control system design is a difficult problem because are inherently nonlinear, incorporating variable time delays characteristics exists everywhere between the input and output of an engine. The output time delay which varies inversely with the engine speed makes the control process even harder. Furthermore, disturbances caused by different operating conditions may arise during engine idle speed running. All these reasons have increased difficulties to control the idle speed accurately.

Engines are inherently nonlinear, incorporating variable time delays and discontinuities which make modeling difficult, and for this reason their control is well suited to optimization using Fuzzy logic algorithms. This paper aims to apply Fuzzy logical controller to maintain a constant idle speed, in this experiment, a SAAB B202 engine was used to identify idle speed appearance. The developed model has a control-design oriented philosophy and is capable to significantly minimize the varying of idle speed within an engine speed.

Keywords idle speed control, spark ignition, inherently nonlinear, time delay, fuzzy logical control.

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Optimization of the Dehydration Process in the Manufacture of NT Series Compressors

Abstract The article presents the results of optimizing the final production process (the time of required dehydration) of an industrially produced compressor. Optimization is based on simulations carried out that were conducted in ANSYS CFX. Several variants were tested in which the process parameters were varied (the inside diameter of the tube, the flow at the inlet and outlet temperature). The results of the simulations show which the parameters of the compressor speed up the dehydration process and what consequences shortening of process will have for of the whole production of the compressor. Optimization of the compressor manufacturing process was performed for the NT series compressor. The compressor is the largest industrial compressor manufactured in a specialized global company.

Keywords compressor, dehydration, heating, optimization, simulation.

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Puzzle Based Captcha Implementation for Noisy Environment

Abstract Today, it is a very common problem that bots attack on the online polls and register free email accounts automatically that increase the congestion on network as well as consume large amount of server space. Therefore, to prevent these kinds of attacks, a technique called Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) have been used. The main motive of present research work is to design a CAPTCHA in order to increase the security by preventing bot attacks using random mathematical functions and background noise makes it invulnerable for the optical recognition (OCR) technique to break the CAPTCHA as OCR attack is capable of only extracting characters from an image. To make CAPTCHA more secure, cross operations has been embedded in the present algorithm which makes it impossible for OCR technique to decode its output result.

Keywords CAPTCHA, OCR, Puzzle, Cross operation, Bots.

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Corrosion behavior of weathering steel in tropical atmosphere of Vietnam

Abstract Weathering steel (WS) of Corten B type was exposed for three years at three test sites including urban and marine sites. After one year-exposure, WS showed the protective ability better than carbon steel (CS) did. The corrosion loss of WS fitted well power law with high correlations. The characterization of rust layer was studied by using X-ray diffraction, optical microscope and SEM-EDX. Goethite (α-FeOOH), akaganeite (β-FeOOH), lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH), maghemite and magnetite were founded in corrosion product formed on WS for 3, 6, and 12 month-exposure; The structure of rust layer of WS composed of two layers – the inner layer dark-grayish, dense and good adherent to steel substrate; and the outer layer porous and reddish; The morphologies of rust surface showed the sandy and flowery structure typical for lepidocrocite and cotton balls structure typical for goethite; Cr and Cu distributed in the inner layer of rust – at distance of 40-60µm from steel substrate. The resistance of rust layers was evaluated by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement. This proved the predominance of WS over CS in corrosion resistance. The influence of environmental factors on protectiveness of WS was also discussed in this paper.

Keywords: weathering steel, rust layer, corrosion loss, rust resistance, protectiveness.

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Parametric Study of steel-concrete composite beams

Abstract In this paper a numerical model is developed to predict the behaviour of steel-concrete composite beams with circular openings up to failure. The numerical model takes into account both material and geometric non-linearity and nonlinear behavior of the connection. Calibration with experimental data obtained from previous work shows that the model is able to predict, with relatively good accuracy, the ultimate load. A parametric study is then followed to study the influence of post dimensions and the shape and spacing of the openings on the behavior of such beams under the action of three types of static loading

KeywordsComposite beam, concrete, steel, nonlinear behaviour, shape opening, spacing openings.

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Absorption storage of hydrogen in alloys of Ti, Ni, Mn, C

Abstract Hydrogen storage is considered one of the most critical issues that must be resolved for the implementation of economic and viable hydrogen energy systems. Without effective storage systems, it will be very difficult to achieve beneficial value from the hydrogen economy. One physical limit on the storage of hydrogen is the density of compressed and liquid hydrogen. Currently, considerable attention is being paid to the development of metal hydride alloys, which can effectively absorb and retain a large amount of hydrogen through chemical bonds. The article analyzes research into metal hydride alloys based on Ti-Cr-Mn, Ti-Cr-Ni and Cr-Ti-Ni0.5-Mn0.5.

Keywords hydrogen, metal hydride, absorption storage, storage capacity.

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Study on fabrication and Characterization of NANO iron and Nano Iron on Carrier

Abstract Gasification of biomass fabricating syngas fuels has contributed to expand the applicability of solid biomass fuel. But the by-product tar of the gasification has largely limited the effectiveness. However, gasification Fe- catalyst has been recognized as a good factor reducing the tar and increasing the gas quality. The paper studies the fabrication of separated nano iron and carrier attached nano iron regarding to a catalytic application during the biomass gasification. The applied technique of the fabrication includes pyrolysis and mechanical milling. Character of the products, as structures and particle dimension, has been examined. The suitable fabrication condition has been considered.

Keywords Nano Iron, Pyrolysis, Milling, Fabrication technique, Gasification of Biomass Fabrication.

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Influence of heat treatment and processing on the mechanical properties of a NiTi-Al matrix composite manufactured via composite extrusion

Abstract Shape Memory Alloy - Metal Matrix Composites (SMA-MMC) are a relatively new class of the so called intelligent or smart materials. They can reach exceptional mechanical properties or even a functionalization by the use of Shape-Memory-Materials as “reinforcing”-elements. In this work a SMA-MMC consisting of an EN AW-6060 aluminum matrix and a Nickel-Titan-alloy (Nitinol) wire as reinforcing element was investigated. The composite was produced by a composite extrusion process which allowed the unidirectional embedding of the NiTi-wires. The manufactured composite profiles were then additionally heat treated to investigate the influence of heat impact on NiTi-wire and matrix properties and their influence on the composites overall mechanical properties and deformation behavior. The influence of heat treatment only on the wire was investigated by heat treatments of single wires in a furnace comparable to the composites heat treatment. The composites mechanical properties and those of the wires were determined by isothermal tensile tests. Furthermore the interface properties were determined by push-out-tests. The interfacial strength was found to be correlated to the matrix strength and was therefore highest in the T6 heat treatment state. The testing temperature for the tensile tests was chosen to T = 295 K to achieve a pure martensitic state of the NiTi-alloy and to T = 423 K to represent a pure austenitic state. The results showed that the composite reaches a significant increased ultimate tensile strength with at the same time increased ductility, measured by uniform strain, compared to the matrix material. At elevated temperatures additionally a significant increase of the 0.2% yield strength was observed and the measured uniform strain as well as the total strain to fracture was increased in all heat treatment states. Influence of heat treatment of the wire revealed an increase of the strain for reaching a fully detwinned martensite (isostress plateau). Comparing the experimental determined deformation behavior to a theoretical approach based on the Kelly-Model showed instead that the wire in the composite lead to the assumption that rather no or only a small effect from the heat treatment occurs. Therefore, it is assumed that the observed lengthening of the isostress plateau has to be connected with a microstructural transformation from oxidation of the wire in the furnace while the embedded wire in the composite is protected from reactions with the atmosphere during the heat treatment.

Keywords Smart Material, Composite extrusion, Nitinol, SM-MMC, Deformation behavior.

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Identification of spatial objects by their monochrome images of autonomous mobile robots

Abstract- The method of image recognition of spatial objects of autonomous mobile robots is presented in this paper. This method is based on equations system in which the changes of the inertia moments depend on the change in the size and rotation of the image of a plane figure. The results of computer simulations confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method are carried out.

Keywords- identification of images, flat figure, monochrome images, affined transformation, inertia moments.

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Complimentarity of digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry and simulated infrared thermography for Cultural Heritage structural diagnostic research

Abstract In the field of art conservation there is an increased demand for non destructive and non invasive techniques able to perform remote defect detection for structural evaluation of historical structures and works of art. The techniques must have some basic important characteristics as non destructivity, accuracy, repeatability and desired features as non contact, portability, resolution, broad range of applicability. The simulated infrared thermography (SIRT) and digital holographic speckle pattern interferometry (DHSPI) are systems discussed in detail elsewhere; in this paper have been used in combined testing on art related targets according to the above criteria. Results confirm the effectiveness of both techniques in the conservation field and examples are here in presented. Each system is thus described as individual method highlighting the advantages and limitations of each. The aim is to present the suitability and appropriateness for accurate defect mapping in structural documentation reports. This work is considered preliminary and is in progress for the future hybrid synthesis of systems and data.

Keywords Artwork conservation, Cultural heritage, Holography, Interferometry, Infrared thermography.

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Effect of temperature on crystallite size and residual stress of nano-nickel coatings

AbstractNanocrystalline nickel coatings were prepared from a Watts bath using pulse current (PC) condition. To investigate the temperature effect on the crystallite size and residual stress of the nano-nickel coatings, The temperature of the electroplating bath was maintained at 35 °C, 40 °C, 50 °C, 55 °C, and 60 °C respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the crystallite size, relative texture coefficient, and residual stress of the studied coatings. The experimental results show that with increasing temperature of the Watts bath, the average crystallite size, relative texture coefficient of crystallographic plane (200) (same direction as (100)), and compressive residual stress of nanocrystalline nickel coatings increase. It is concluded that moderately increasing the temperature (up to about 60 °C) in the process of nanocrystalline nickel coating production will promote the preferred orientation of crystallographic plane (100) and the compressive residual stress, which enhances nickel crystal compaction, coating adhesion, and coating integrity.

Keywords Crystallite size, Electro-deposition, Nano-nickel coating, relative texture coefficient, Residual stress, Watts bath temperature.

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Design concept of a hydrogen filling system

Abstract The rising costs of fossil fuels, particularly oil and declining reserves point to a growing need to find alternative possibilities for public and private transport. Currently, hydrogen appears to be a promising fuel. Production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water guarantees ecological purity and a positive impact on the environment. The mass application of hydrogen as a transport fuel is prevented by the lack of infrastructure, the construction of which requires a large initial investment. Despite this, there is growing pressure on car manufacturers that must respond to market demand if they want to be able to compete. The present article discusses the design of a hydrogen pump system based on the production of hydrogen by electrolysis of water, using photovoltaic panels as a primary source of electrical energy.

Keywords hydrogen, hydrogen technology, design, filling station.

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Friday, 4 November 2016

Engineering Journal : IJOER: October Issue 2016

AD Publications is a registered organization had published its Volume-2, Issue-10, October 2016 with International Journal of Engineering Research & Science

On the Kinetics of Palm Oil Crystallisation

Abstract In this work the crystallisation of palm oil (a typical melt) is used as a model process and kinetic parameters at different end temperatures and cooling rates were evaluated using three model approaches: two from the traditional melt fractionation, one from the classic solution crystallisation. The objective was to establish critical understanding on the various model approaches and their applications. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtain the melting temperatures, isothermal induction times and enthalpy of the crystallisation for the Fisher-Turnbull and Avrami model evaluations, while turbidity and temperature probes were utilized to generate metastable zone width as a function of cooling rates for the classical Nyvlt model analysis. Our results show that the Fisher-Turnbull and the Nyvlt models are useful in estimating the nucleation rate constants (kn) with reasonable agreement: this unites the model approaches and allows comparison between fat fractionation and solution crystallisation of organics. While the Avrami model is capable of evaluating the growth mechanism of the formed crystals (n) and the overall crystallisation rate constant (k), none of the parameters can be compared with other models because of the different definitions of the growth mechanism as well as the dependence of k value on the growth mechanism when dealing different fats of varying compositions. This is the first contribution of this work. In addition, our results indicate that the growth of nuclei to a stable size was generally slower in melt crystallisation compared to a typical organic solution system due to the relatively lower rate constant (kn) and the high viscosity and multicomponent properties of the melt system used in this study. This is the second contribution of this work. Keywords Avrami model, Crystallisation, Fisher-Turnbull model, nucleation rate constant, Nyvlt model, palm oil fractionation.

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Comparison of Thermal Properties in Composites of PHB Using Rice Husk Ash or Talc as Filler

Abstract This study has been conducted in order to use rationally rice husk ash (RHA) since it is one of the most abundant industrial waste. With the purpose of comparing fillers, composites of PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate) with RHA and PHB with talc (TA), were obtain by twin-screw extrusion and injection molding techniques and characterized by the use of Laser Flash Method and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The thermal conductivity value displayed by PHB polymer was 0.419 W∙m-1∙K-1 while the composites values were slightly higher, due to the increasing content of the filler. PHB/RHA composite showed maximum values 0.456 W∙m-1∙K-1 and, PHB/TA composite was 0.492 W∙m-1∙K-1. As regards to the DSC it can be stated that the presence of filler does not change significantly the thermogram curve, as evidenced by the endothermic peak at 172.96°C, 173.61°C and 171.65°C to PHB, PHB/RHA (85/15) and PHB/TA (85/15), respectively. Fillers from waste contribute to sustainable materials.

Keywords PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate), Composites, Rice Husk Ash, Talc, Laser Flash Method.

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Validation for Smartphone Applications for Measuring Noise

Abstract Nowadays, the number of applications developed for smartphones is quite huge and, among them, we can find applications dedicated to measure acoustics parameters. In this work, we have done a comparison between eight of these applications and a reference sound level meter, obtaining sound pressure level, directivity and reverberation time at different frequencies and levels. The results can help to choose the most precise application according to the required magnitudes for acoustics studies.

Keywords Applets, Noise Applications, Smartphones.

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The Creation of the Landscape Planning and Design Projects with Idea Developed for Diversity

Abstract Recent years the relationship between the nature and human has become disappearing. Because people are forced to live in urban areas which are concrete and metal stack in today’s. So city people have demanded to return the areas belonging to them from time to time where resembling the natural environment. In this regard urban parks are important for the city and the city people. This study focuses on the preferred qualities of area in terms of both environmental affordances and design characteristics in urban park and recreation area. The key concern of this study is to explore the concepts of the projects and reflects of this to the projects and area. The study was conducted in the Bartın City. The study area planned and designed in different views of the planners/designers. After studies three projects prepared in different concepts were selected for example. The research instrument was a set of landscape plan and design projects including survey, spot, master, vegetable, construction, sketch and perspective elements. The study covers the importance of planners/designers’ preference in landscape plan and design studios. Landscape structure and functions have been examined within the context of the entire natural and cultural dynamics in the study. The project phases involved setting thematic strategic objectives, conceptualizing spatial development scenario along with action plans and delivering model proposals. In compliance with protection and management of natural and cultural landscapes, the project introduces natural and cultural asset-based approach to form local sustainable development framework. Each development idea has been tested with others and the sustainability of natural-cultural landscapes, and subsequently spatial interaction analysis scrutinized. In conclusion, this paper outlined the area development strategy project alongside the author’s point of view with a focus on concepts. Finally, the results were used to create a set of useful recommendations to help urban people and designers create more livable spaces in urban areas.

Keywords Urban open areas, urban parks, landscape planning, landscape design, recreation.

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Deformation Analysis of Autobody Panels

Abstract This paper describes experimental results for the forming limits for steel sheet DC 04 (KOHAL 200) and the deformation states in large-sized autobody panels of the Skoda, with examples of the application of these results to the analysis of an actual press forming operation. The forming-limit diagram (FLD) was determined using the in-plane stretching method. The deformation states in the large-sized autobody panels were marked on the FLD and compared with the limit strains of the sheet metal tested. Since successful forming requires the right combination of material, lubrication, sheet-blank configuration and die design, the trial-and-error method was used to determine the proper forming parameters. By analysing the strain patterns, it was possible to obtain the changes needed to convert an unfavourable stamping into a favourable one.

Keywords Autobody stampings, forming limit diagram, major- and minor-strain.

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Degradation Mechanisms of Organic Solar Cells

Abstract Organic solar cells are of majority concern for future electrical power generation because of low-cost, lightweight and flexible production. Stability and degradation is of paramount importance in organic solar cells. Depending on the significance of air exposure, the degradation of organic solar cells can be divided into extrinsic and intrinsic degradation. Organic solar cells often suffer from degradation in oxygen and water. Intrusion of oxygen and water are the principal causes of extrinsic degradation. In this study, we discuss the recent developments of organic solar cell materials and summarize recent improve of organic solar cells with emphasis on the extrinsic degradation that specially related to oxygen and water.

Keywords Degradation, Organic Solar Cell, Stability.

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Computationally efficient distortion prediction in Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

Abstract This work addresses the analysis and development of computationally efficient distortion prediction numerical methodologies applicable to powder bed based selective laser melting (SLM) process. Initially, state of the art of simplified distortion modelling methodologies based on finite element (FE) models is introduced. Existing methodologies are described in terms of complexity and applicability to SLM process.

The methodology known as inherent shrinkage, previously developed for multipass welding processes, is applied to predict SLM process induced distortion in Inco 718 testing geometry (cantilever). An assessment about predictive capability of this simplified model based on correlation between numerical results and experimental measurements is performed. Experimental distortions are measured after cutting of base plate connected supports. Initially, the influence of meshing, layer activation and equivalent thermal loads is investigated in terms of prediction capability and computational cost. Subsequently, isotropic and non-isotropic thermal expansion coefficients (α) are considered in the FE-model definition. Results demonstrate that it is feasible to accurately predict the distortion induced by different scanning strategies (chess-board pattern, transversal stripes and longitudinal stripes) in short times. Current developments entail a cost-effective alternative for controlling and reducing distortions in SLM parts.

Keywords Additive manufacturing, distortion prediction, inherent shrinkage, numerical modeling, powder bed fusion.

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Fabrication of Low Cost Prosthetic Arm with Foamed Fingers

AbstractA lot of research is happening in medical field in the area of prosthesis with a aim to reduce the cost and at the same time, the artificial limb being effective. The current work concentrates on the area of prosthetic hand. Most of the prosthetic arms currently available are motor driven and costly. There are non-powered prosthetic hand also but involve the use of elastic band on solid fingers which make the arms heavy. The current work is aimed at overcoming these difficulties by the use of EPE foamed fingers which are driven actuated by a tendon by the gesture of palm while the foam provides the necessary spring back. CAD models are prepared using proe while 3D printing is used for fabricating most of the arm. EPE is used as foam material while PLA and Acrylic are used for outer structure.

Keywords 3D printing, EPE foamed finger, PLA, prosthetic hand, tendon driven.

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Experimental and Modeling Density and Surface Tension of 1, 2-Dimethylbenzene with Alkanes at 298.15K

Abstract Experimental density and surface tension of 1,2-dimethylbenzene with octane, nonane and decane have been obtained at 298.15K and atmospheric pressure. This work increases the available experimental information regarding this kind of mixtures useful in the fuel field. The excess molar volume and the surface tension deviation have been correlated by Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. Besides, density of binary systems has been predicted and correlated with Nitta-Chao group contribution and ERAS models respectively while the surface tension deviation have been predicted with HSIS and HSEG and SE models. Finally, a comparison about the behavior of excess volume molar and deviation surface tension between dimethylbenzene isomers and alkanes is presented.

Keywords density, surface tension, 1,2-dimethylbenzene, alkane.

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Lips Identification using Fuzzy Based Triangular Feature Set

Abstract Biometric traits are now highly explored by researchers to identify a person. This paper presents a biometric identifier, namely lips for personal identification. A Fuzzy based on Triangle Feature Set is applied to the lips verification system. This method demonstrates that the minutiae template of an user may be used to reconstruct the lips image of Computer Education and Training Society (CETS) students and staff members. The performance of the method is also reported. This paper proposes the concept of fixed number of triangles in the lips. It improves the performance of the method.

Keywords Distortion, Lip, Matching, Orientation, Verification.

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Reliability Evaluation of Multicommodity Limited-Flow Networks with Budget Constraints

AbstractMany real-world systems such as manufacturing systems, transportation systems and logistics/distribution systems that play important roles in our modern society can be regarded as multicommodity flow networks whose arcs have independent, finite and multi-valued random capacities. Such a flow network is a multistate system with multistate components and its reliability for level (d;c), i.e., the probability that k different types of commodity can be transmitted from the source node to the sink node such that the demand level is satisfied and the total transmission cost is less than or equal to c, can be evaluated in terms of minimal path vectors to level (d;c) (named (d;c)-MPs here). The main objective of this paper is to present an intuitive algorithm to generate all (d;c)-MPs of such a flow network for each level (d;c) in terms of minimal pathsets. Two examples are given to illustrate how all (d;c)-MPs are generated by our algorithm and then the reliability of one example is computed.

Keywords Reliability, limited-flow network, multicommodity, multistate system, (d;c)-MP.

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Investigation of the failure behavior of metal inserts embedded in CFRP under cyclic loading

Abstract Due to their outstanding specific mechanical properties, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) exhibit a high application potential for lightweight structures. With respect to multi-material design, CFRP parts have to be joined to other components such like loadframes or to functional elements. Drilling of structural CFRP parts to be joined can be avoided by the use of embedded metal elements, so called inserts. In this contribution, two different variants of inserts featuring different geometries of the load carrying base plate are embedded in the CFRP during preforming. The parts are finally consolidated by a resin transfer molding (RTM) process. When comparing juvenile, i.e. non-predamaged, specimens in multiple step tests it can be shown, that specimens with optimized insert have higher cyclic strengths. To evaluate the influence of impact damage on the cyclic strength the two component variants were predamaged by various impact energies. Afterwards, the specimens with optimized insert still showed significantly higher cyclic strengths, but it also became evident that the damage tolerance of the reference insert geometry was higher. The reference also endured higher impact energies without complete failure and the influence on the performance was lower.

Another aim of this study was to derive lifetime predictions for both component variants using multiple step tests and to validate with experimentally determined S-N curves. According to the reference insert, a lifetime prediction was not possible due to different damage mechanisms occurred under quasi-static and cyclic loads. The lifetime predictions for the specimens with optimized insert based on a cyclic force-displacement curve show only a partial correlation for very high loads when the insert is pulled out of the laminate.

Keywords cyclic loading, composite, joining, multiple step test, S-N curve.

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Research on Dynamic Evacuation Simulations in large-scale shopping centers

Abstract This study chose a large-scale shopping center housed in a typical warehouse-style commercial building as an example to review its fire accident history and to conduct an on-site questionnaire survey to determine the features and conditions of the fire and smoke hazards when this type of building is on fire. The features of the distribution of people and the characteristics of their behavior and responses from the literature were quantified into parameters and inputted into the evacuation model. The FDS+Evac computer simulation software of the performance-based analysis was used to dynamically simulate the amount of time required for evacuation. The present study chose two fire scenarios and, depending on the activation of the fire safety equipment, each scenario was further divided into four more scenarios for discussing their impacts on evacuation. Hazardous impacts from the height of the smoke layer, fire temperature, CO concentration, visibility, and radiation intensity on people during evacuation were simulated and analyzed. The present study further verified and validated the hazardous conditions for the shoppers using the FED value and explored the approach for helping people who need assistance during shopping center evacuation at the time of occurrence. The results show that when fire equipment (smoke exhausts and automatic fire sprinklers) is activated, the majority of people can be evacuated safely. If only one of the equipment is activated, then the activation of the smoke exhaust would work better than the automatic fire sprinklers in protecting people’s lives. For warehouse store fire safety, it is critical to plan the evacuation routes according to the local conditions and enhance guidance for people who need assistance in an emergency evacuation.

Keywords Warehouse-style commercial buildings, large-scale shopping centers, fire accident simulation, FDS+Evac, Dynamic evacuation simulation.

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To Establish Evacuation Decision-making Selection Modes of Aboriginal Tribes in Debris Flow Remote Areas from Disasters via Community-based Disaster Management

Abstract In this study I try to utilize the concepts of “environmental vulnerability” and “evacuation behaviors among minority groups” and apply the evacuation selection mode generated from the public hazard perception to geographic information system, and analyze movement paths of residents during after disaster by using composite technology so that I can modify the suggested service scope and capacity of evacuation sites in the regions investigated in this study and provide minority groups with optimal selection mode.

Keywords Debris flow, Secondary disasters, Evacuation behavior, Minority groups, Earthquake, Geographic Information System (GIS), Disaster risk reduction.

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A Study for the Performance Evaluation of Volunteer Teams-The Case of Evaluation for the Affecting Factors of Public Fire Education Conducted by Women Disaster Prevention Advocate in Taiwan

Abstract Public fire education work is one of the Fire Agency’s important fire prevention services. This paper makes use of a questionnaire designed according to relevant documents and work nature of the Women Disaster Prevention Advocate (WDPA) to investigate the effects of public fire education. Members of WDPA are then surveyed in Taiwan in order to gauge the effectiveness of the existing public fire education factors, and using statistical regression analysis. Results from the WDPA Self-Evaluation analysis are used to rank the most affecting factors on the effects of the public fire education. It is found that self-growth is the most important, next is job-involvement, third is training content, then by followed is job recognition.

Keywords Regression Models, Women Disaster Prevention AdvocateWDPA, Volunteer.

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Computer Aided Detection Method for Ischemic Stroke Using Feature Based Approach

Abstract In this paper we have proposed a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) scheme for the early detection of Ischemic Stroke using Adaptive Region of interest. A number of statistical parameters such as Energy and Entropy will be calculated from the Adaptive Region of interest and these will be compared with the contra-lateral side of the brain.

Keywords Ischemic stroke, Computer aided detection, Adaptive region of interest, image features.

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A new tool for inhalers’ use and adherence monitoring: the Amiko® validation trial

Abstract The lack of adherence to treatment and misuse of inhaled medication are hot topics in asthma and COPD management. Novel electronic monitoring devices are regarded as promising in assessing medication use. The aim of this study was the experimental performance evaluation of an electronic monitoring device (Amiko®) on Ellipta® (GlaxoSmithKline), Spiromax® (Teva Pharmaceutical Industries), and NEXThaler® (Chiesi Farmaceutici). Amiko® introduces a clinically negligible inspiratory flow resistance when added to the tested DPI. It was able to detect the performed inhalation in more than 99% of cases providing also an estimate of the patient’s inspiratory effort with a limited gap across the different devices. All the loading manoeuvres were recorded correctly for each DPI, independently of the orientation of the device, resulting in an accuracy of 100.0%. Similarly, the tool was able to detect the device orientation during the performed inhalation with a mean absolute error inferior than 3.53° for the three DPIs. All the above reported results suggest that Amiko® technology will allow to identify, store and communicate relevant data for adherence improvement and misuse correction. Usability test, efficacy and effectiveness in improving respiratory disease management, need to be explored in clinical research setting and in real life.

Keywords inhaled device, loading, recording, orientation, inspiratory effort.

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Model development of untenable conditions during egress and stochastic evaluation in compartment fires

Abstract This study aimed to develop an “improved simplified two-zone model authentication technology” in order to simulate the time to untenable conditions in compartments less than 200 m2 in area, which include smoke layer temperature, visibility, carbon monoxide concentration, fractional lethal dose, and radiation heat flux. Based on reliability-based design and structure function, this study focuses on constructing “the stochastic model of egress safety/failure in a compartment fire”. Moreover, stochastic parameters and probability distributions were assumed. Random numbers of parameters were generated by Monte Carlo simulation. After several simulations, the failure probability of occupants egress due to one or more than one of the untenable conditions was obtained. After constructing the model, 200 m2 occupants in a ALA PUB disco ballroom located in Taichung, Taiwan were taken as an example. The simulation of polyurethane furniture fire was executed 100 times. The results showed that installation of automatic fire alarm equipments and emergency broadcasting equipments can substantially reduce the untenable conditions and failure probability of occupants egress. Some ideas for fire officers and future studies for fire researchers were also recommended.

Keywords Fractional lethal dose, Radiation heat flux, Reliability-based design, Stochastic model, Structure function, Untenable conditions.

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Matching method of partial shoeprint images based on PCA-SIFT algorithm

Abstract To improve the accuracy of image matching shoeprint image feature matching method based on PCA-SIFT is proposed. Firstly, feature detection and pre-matching of images are done by using PCA-SIFT (principal component analysis-scale invariant feature transform) algorithm. And then, the correlation coefficient is used as similarity measurement, which can filter image interest points. By this method, the image matching pairs can be obtained. Finally, the RANSAC (random sample consensus) algorithm is used to eliminate the mismatching pairs. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more robust while maintaining good registration accuracy when analyzing partial shoeprint images in the presence of geometric distortions such as scale and rotation distortions compared with conventional algorithms.

Keywords PCA-SIFT, shoeprint image, image matching, RANSAC.

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Simultaneous esterification and transesterification of andiroba oil using niobium oxide-sulfate as catalyst

Abstract The rising market in biofuels has been encouraging researchers to develop new routes for biodiesel production in order to increase the yields of the process. Heterogeneous acid catalysts represent an alternative to avoid the traditional alkaline pathway for producing alkyl esters from oils with a high content of free fatty acids. In this study, sulfated - niobium oxide catalyst was developed by impregnating Nb2O5 with H2SO4 (0.5 mol/L) and used to carry out simultaneous esterification and transesterification of andiroba (Carapa guianensis) oil with high free fatty acid content (acid value: 33.1 mg KOH/g). Reactions were performed with anhydrous ethanol under different conditions of temperature and molar ratio of oil to ethanol, using the SO42‑/Nb2O5, catalyst at 5% (w/w reaction mixture). The oil conversion was determined by the 1H-NMR spectroscopy method and the maximum conversion of andiroba oil into ethyl esters was 90.9%, which was achieved in a pressurized reactor.

Keywords Acid oil, esterification/transesterification, ethyl esters, free fatty acids, niobium oxide-sulfate.

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Saturday, 1 October 2016

Engineering Journal : September 2016

Engineering Journal: International Journal of Engineering Research & Science publishes articles of international interest from all areas of Engineering and Science research.

The Effects of Individualized Physical Rehabilitation Program

Abstract

Objective: to evaluate the effects of long-term aerobic training, designed with individualized method based on lactate threshold definition, on exercise capacity, HF severity and ergoreflex activity.

Methods: We evaluated 73 HF patients, mean age 53+/-1.8, 59 men, with NYHA class III, LVEF 40,8+/-0,3%. CPET performed on a treadmill ("Oxycon Pro" (Jaeger, Germany)) at baseline, in every 8 weeks and after 6 months. The cubital venous catheter was inserted before CPET. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 1-minute intervals during test. Lactate concentration in blood was measured using analyzer i-STAT, cartridge CG4 (Abbot, USA). All patients were randomized into following groups: 50 patients of study group (SG), who underwent physical rehabilitation program (PRP), calculated due to lactate threshold; and 23 HF patients control group (CG), who underwent physical training, calculated based on VO2 percentage.

Results: At baseline CPET results in both groups did not significantly differ. VО2 at lactate threshold and VО2peak were 8.7+/-0,5; 13,5+/-0,9 ml/min/kg and 8.9 +/- 0.9; 13,6+/-1,2 ml/min/kg in study group and control group, respectively (p1=0,08, p2=0,07, respectively). After 24 weeks of training VО2LT and VО2peak were better in the study group than in control group: the increase was 16% and 24% in the main group, and 4% and 7% in the control group, respectively (p1<0,01, p2<0,01). The ergoreflex activity at baseline did not significantly differ in two study groups. After long-term aerobic training we recorded a more marked reduction in the ergoreflex activity in study group: for DBP it was 35% and 20%, VE - 48% and 25%, VE/VCO2 - 39% and 12%, in the study group and control groups, respectively. By the 24th week of training in 34 (85%) patients of the study group the severity of HF was reduced to NYHA class II, and among the patients in the control group such dynamics was observed only in 17(50%) patients.

Conclusions: aerobic exercise, designed with individualized method based on lactate threshold definition, increase exercise tolerance, reduces HF severity and ergoreflex activity more than aerobic training, calculated based on VO2peak percentage.

Keywords Physical Rehabilitation, HF patients, threshold, NYHA class III, aerobic exercise.

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Numerical Simulations of Longitudinal Advection Dispersion Contaminant Decay Model with Time-dependent Sources with COMSOL Multiphysics

Abstract A direct simulation investigations of contaminant transport has been conducted. The simulations are based on the unsteady longitudinal advection diffusion contaminant decay equation, which is discretized using finite element Galerkin’s method with backward difference time formulation with the application of COMSOL Multiphysics Software Package. It was observed that the simulation results, which are illustrated pictorially via line graphs and contours, consistently represented the analytical solutions of Mebine and George (2011), thereby demonstrating interesting features of the problem effected by the variety of contaminant decay time-dependent sources.

Keywords Advection, COMSOL Multiphysics, Contaminant decay, Dispersion, Pollution, Time-dependent sources.

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Solving Complex Fuzzy Linear System of Equations by using QR-Decomposition Method

Abstract In this paper, QR-decomposition method for solving the complex fuzzy linear equation in which is a crisp complex matrix and is an arbitrary complex fuzzy vector is considered. Some examples are given to illustrate the proposed method.

Keywords Complex fuzzy numbers, Fuzzy linear systems, Fuzzy approximate solutions, QR-decomposition.

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Optimization studies for industrial wastewater defluoridation by adsorption: application of a design of experiments

AbstractThis paper aims to examine the treatment of aluminum fluoride-manufacturing wastewaters (AFMW) by adsorption on Tunisian natural clay using a two-level full factorial design. For this sake, three operating parameters supposed to affect the removal efficiency were chosen: dose of adsorbent, concentration of fluoride ions, and pH of the medium. Factors that influence the fluoride removal efficiency were evaluated statistically by using factorial plots. Diagram of the effects was used to check the significance of the effect on percentage removal. The statistical analysis allowed verifying that the dose of adsorbent and pH have an influence on the fluoride elimination. Treatment of a strongly acidic (pH ~ 2) and fluoride-rich AFMW (F=26,000 mg/L) by adsorption on natural clay was used to determine the optimum conditions. The application of this method has led to an important decrease in fluorine content (> 98%).

KeywordsAdsorption, Aluminum fluoride-manufacturing, Design of Experiment, Fluoride, Industrial wastewater, Natural clay.

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Prediction of expansive soil based on the coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE)

Abstract An expansive soil is any soil that is prone to large volume changes (shrinking and swelling) directly related to changing moisture conditions. The swelling capacity can cause heaving, or lifting of structures whilst shrinkage can cause differential settlement. The amounts by which the ground can shrink and/ or swell depend not only on the supply of moisture in the ground but also on the type and amount of clay minerals, internal structure and void ratios of the soil. Characterization of swelling potential is critically important to mitigate the adverse effects of expansive soils. Therefore, this study uses the coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE) as the controlling method to characterize swelling potential of expansive soils. The samples for this test were retrieved from two different locations in areas prone with expansive soils in Kibaha Township in Tanzania. Bulk density was determined on irregular soil clods and COLE was calculated as the difference between bulk density values at 1/3 bar and oven-dry condition. The coefficient of linear extensibility that ranged from 0.09 to 1.15 clearly indicated soils with high to very high shrink–swell potential. Lastly, a direct relationship existed between COLE and colloids contents with high degree of correlation (i.e. Correlation Coefficients (R) equal to 0.942 and 0.824 for samples RC5 and RB3 respectively) providing a confirmation to the presence of high to very high expansive potential of the soils.

Keywords Expansive soil, coefficient of linear extensibility (COLE), Clay content and shrink-swell potential.

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Preventing Coordination Problems during the Design Stage of Projects

Abstract The design stage of construction projects is considered one of the most fragmented stages in the life cycle of a project since it involves many participants and several geographic locations. Considering the giant size of the construction industry in the United Arab Emirates and the complexity of construction projects, it is hardly surprising that there are also coordination problems during the design process. Coordination problems, normally seen in the contract documents of almost every project, are direct results of the ongoing growth in the construction industry in the country. Decisions during the design stage have an extensive impact on all succeeding stages. Producing a quality design is highly dependent upon effective coordination among the diverse teams in the process. As a step towards effective design coordination, this paper investigates the manner by which expert designers prevent mistakes, detect mismatches, and communicate changes during the design stage. A questionnaire survey was conducted among design firms in the United Arab Emirates to collect information about the current coordination practice used during the design stage. Causes and frequency of coordination problems along with recommendations on solutions to these problems have been presented and areas of potential improvement have been identified. Based on the results of the survey, the study then suggested a coordination management scheme that can be used as a general guide to improve coordination during the design stage. Common interrelationships within the design development have also been explicated.

Keywords Coordination Problems, Design Process, Management, Quality Design, Questionnaire Survey.

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Hydration Kinetics and Fire Resistance of Recycled Low Grade Alumino-Silicate Refractory Bricks Waste-Metakaolin Composite Cement Pastes

Abstract The aim of the present work is to study the effect of low grade aluminosilicate refractory bricks (ASRBs) with metakaolin (MK) on the hydration properties and the fire resistance of composite cement pastes at elevated temperature up to 800 oC. The composite cement are composed of constant proportion of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) (80 wt%) with variable amounts of ASRBs and MK. The substitution of 20% ASRBs with MK increases the water of consistency and retarded the initial as well as the final setting times, whereas the free lime contents and the bulk density decreases with MK. The compressive strength increases with MK content which enhanced the early and long term strength. It acts also as micro-filler that accelerates initial cement hydration. The fire resistance of composite cement pastes was evaluated up to 800 oC with rate of firing 5 oC/min. and soaking time for 2 h. The physico-mechanical properties such as, weight loss, bulk density and compressive strength were determined at each firing temperature. Moreover, some selected samples were investigated by using XRD, DTA/TG and SEM techniques analyses. Cement pastes containing 20 wt% ASRBs (PC-A) is the optimum composite cement paste which gives high bulk density and compressive strength. It can be concluded the cement paste PC-A has a good fire resistance paste.

Keywords MK, ASRBs, DTA, XRD, Hydration, Fire resistance cement.

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Vibration analysis of electric grass trimmer using FEM

Abstract HAV(Hand Arm Vibration)is a major problem in workers who operates hand held machine in day to day life, Hand arm vibration is form of vibration that is transmitted into your hands and arms, usually as a result of carrying out mechanized, hand-held work tasks. In this experiment the test RIG is manufactured to give comfort as well as help in reduction for Vibration, this rig also isolated by trimmer using MR elastomer and Foam and all readings are taken by FFT and validated by FEA.

Keywords HAV-Hand Arm Vibration, FFT-Fast Fourier Transformer, MR Elastomer-Magneto Rheolaogical.

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New method for heat loss calculation

Abstract - The process of heat transportation by means of heat distribution networks is accompanied by considerable heat losses, which has the impact on the overall operation of a heat distribution network as well as the efficiency of heat supply. Heat losses depend on several factors such as the temperature of transported working fluid, ambient temperature, design of the heat distribution system (channel, directly buried, underground, above-ground...), its length, the thickness and quality of the insulation material used.

Keywords - heat loss, thermal network, thermal resistance, insulation thickness, balance method.

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Monitoring and Analysis of Deformation Laws of Deep Foundation Pit Considering Spatial Effect

Abstract Starting with the analysis of the foundation pit design, the support structure of foundation pit was designed and checked combined with a large deep foundation pit project in Shijiazhuang; According to the current codes, the monitoring scheme considering spatial effect is established; The fiber grating sensor was introduced in the monitoring of the lateral pressure of foundation pit slope, which could realize the on-line, dynamic and real-time monitoring. The field test results showed that spatial effect was significantly reflected in the deformation, earth pressure and other aspects: the foundation pit slope of central settlement is 40%~65% bigger than corner ,horizontal displacement in the middle is 28%~42% larger than corner; The amplification of the positive angle to the settlement and horizontal displacement reached 48% and 11% respectively; The maximum horizontal displacement of the deep soil is located at the depth of 15%~35% below the excavation face; lateral earth pressure of Slope changed with volatility. The lateral earth pressure value of each measuring point increased with the increase of time. At a distance of 0.2 times of the excavation depth below the ground, the measured values of the center, external corner and inside corner were smaller than the calculated values of 42.10%,82.46% and 108.77% respectively; At a distance of 0.5 times of the excavation depth below the ground, the measured value of the middle was 35.21% greater than the calculated. The values of external corner and inside corner were 49.06% and 29.21% smaller than the calculated value respectively. At a distance of 0.8 times of the excavation depth below the ground, the measured values of the center, external corner and inside corner were greater than the calculated values of 6.29%, 40.41% and 23.27% respectively; The settlement of surrounding ground surface was larger when the foundation pit slope settlement was larger.

Keywords deep foundation, pit, spatial effect, deformation monitoring.

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Protection of Solar Powered Vehicle using Sensor

Abstract At present vehicles are majorly facing two problems. One is fuel (petrol or diesel) and other is accidents. The problems due to fuel are overcome with non-conventional sources like solar, fossil fuels, etc.. Now a day’s road accident is a major problem all over the world. Many innocent people are losing their lives. A majority of accidents are due to drunken driving, drowsiness and rash driving. To prevent road accidents we must have particular vehicle protection equipment. To prevent these situations, here we are designing a prototype solar powered vehicle with next generation features. In this paper we are using some sensors to detect ongoing situation like drunken and drowsiness of the driver. So when the driver was unable to handle the situation, then the vehicle will automatically take its control and automatically vehicle is protected.

Keywords Photovoltaic system, 8051 Microcontroller, Driver drowsiness detection, Alcohol detection in vehicles, IR sensor.

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Home Automation using Remote Control System

Abstract This paper provides remote controlling and automation for homes and offices. These are very essential in present life style. Wireless control is primary concern for everyone. This paper describes a design of effective remote control system that can monitor the house. Apart from remote control concern here we also take care of home automation. This paper gives the best solution for electrical power wastage. The home appliances are switched on/off using IR without actually going near to the switch boards or regulators. The water level of the tank can also be monitored and the motor can be controlled through automation.

Keywords Microcontroller, IR unit, Relays, Motor drive, water level sensor.

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Wireless Scada for Monitoring Load Conditions of Transformer and Temperature Control in Remote Plant

Abstract The main aim of the paper is to process the real time data acquisition wirelessly under supervisory control for small and large scale remote industrial environment. In large industrial establishments many processes go on, therefore it is essential to monitor all the processes and control the factors affecting them. Adapting a technology like WIRELESS SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) one can achieve the above mentioned objective effectively, and thus saving a lot of manpower. For achieving this real-time scenario, a temperature & transformer logging system for a remote plant operation is taken. Here temperature sensors & voltage sensors are duly interfaced to the 8051 microcontroller. Data collected from the temperature sensors & voltage sensors are constantly sent over 2.4 GHz transmitter wirelessly to the microcontroller which is then received at the matched 2.4 GHz USB type receiver connected to a PC / Laptop. One can set parameters like set point, low limit and high limit on the computer screen. When the temperature & voltage of sensors goes beyond set point the microcontroller sends a command to the corresponding relay. The heaters (shown as lamps) connected through relay contacts (corresponding to their sensors) are turned OFF (or ON in vice versa). Hence, processes at hazardous areas can be controlled with more accuracy and better safety using SCADA. Adapting such a technology will save both money and time.

Keywords SCADA, Zigbee, Embedded systems, Temperature sensors, transformer.

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Robot Navigation System with RFID and Ultrasonic Sensors

Abstract This Paper proposed a new navigation method for indoor mobile robots. The robot system is composed of a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag sensor and Ultrasonic sensors. The RFID tags are used as landmarks for global path planning and the topological relation map which shows the connection of scattered tags through the environment is used as course instructions to a goal. The robot automatically moves along hallways using the scanned range data until a tag is found and then refers to the topological map for the next movement. Our proposed technique would be useful for real-world robotic applications such as intelligent navigation for motorized wheelchairs, surveillance and security purposes and in Nuclear power plants where humans are prone to harmful radiations.

Keywords RFID Cards, Ultrasonic Sensor, Motor, Driver, Micro Controller.

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Wireless Speed Synchronization of Motors in Industry

Abstract In textile industry many processes require speed synchronization of more than one motors involved in the process. Rolling of cloth should be synchronized with the speed of weaving spindle to avoid damage and motor speed synchronization is vital in conveyor belt driven by multiple motors. Abrupt load variations may cause hunting or oscillatory behavior in d. c. machines. This behavior can be detrimental to the process. The digitally controlled d. c. machines can have much aggravated phenomenon owing to poor sampling period selection. Traditionally processes are synchronized through mechanical transmission system consisting of a line shaft gears, pullers etc. This project is synchronization of multiple motors using wireless technology.

This project uses radio frequency to synchronize motor speeds. One motor acts as transmitter and all the rest as receivers. Thus, if a particular speed is set in the transmitter then all other motors speed would be matched to the same speed of the main motor.

The mode of communication is radio frequency. BLDC motors used operate on the basis of PWM control. Each motor has a closed loop feedback mechanism providing RPM reference by a shaft mounted IR sensor arrangement whose output is fed to the controller in the circuit. A display unit displays the full speed and one can enter the desired percentage with help of a keypad to obtain the required speed for all the motors. Manpower and time is also saved in this system.

Keywords Micro controller, IR sensor, RF module, BLDC Motors and LCD.

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An approach for uniting bottom-up and top-down systems and its applications

Abstract We have investigated the possibility of creating a unification platform for top-down systems and bottom-up structures, which is one of the most important issues for harvesting fruits of upcoming nano-technologies and nano-science together with those of Si- LSI-based information technologies. Under the device-approach, for unifying bottom-up and top-down systems, proposed is a functional device that has hierarchical structures grown, or is to have hierarchical structures grow, inside, not as a result of top-down designing but as a result of self-organization, i.e., a bottom-up structure-formation. Spiral heterostructure is of potential interest for providing us with one-dimensional superlattice structure that would serve as a bridge between top-down LSI systems with two-dimensional bottom-up structures. The spiral heterostructure is, also, of importance for enabling multi-striped orthogonal photon-photocarrier-propagation solar cell (MOP3SC). On the other hand, as a tool-based approach, for unifying bottom-up and top-down systems, clean unit system platform (CUSP) is developed. CUSP can realize dust- and microbe-free environment. The clean versatile environments having small footprint, low power-consumption and high cost-performance can be realized with CUSP for the next generation production system as well as for cross-disciplinary experiments. The approach for uniting bottom-up and top-down systems gives not only new devices but also clean platforms that would be able to serve as clean space for all of us.

Keywords Top-down system, Bottom-up structure, device-based approach, spiral heterostructure, tool-based approach, clean unit system platform, CUSP.

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A study on Rain Water Harvesting at Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology Main Campus, Gunupur, Odisha

Abstract India is agriculture based country. Most of the people of India depend on agriculture for their live hood. Water is highly essential for agriculture apart from day to day use. Now fresh water is going to be scarcity because of water of lakes, rivers, ponds and lakes are polluted and even today some of the water bodies are not suitable for human use. Therefore, present day demands the conservation of fresh water and adaptation of rain water harvesting. Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur is a premier institute of south Odisha and the buildings are designed not only for good ambiences but also to catch the rain water. In this present work we have studied the catchment area of buildings, hydrological potential and runoff coefficient of Gandhi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Gunupur for the year 2015. The rain water harvesting potential (RWHP) of the buildings was found to 21039.63 m2.The study revealed that buildings of GIET campus are a potential source of rain water harvesting in this locality.

Keywords Rain water, rainwater harvesting potential, Gunupur.

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Evaluation ergonomic in agricultural Tractors

Abstract Agricultural mechanization is of extreme importance to high current agricultural demand. The increased production needs associated with the decrease in available area growth imply in the improvement and mechanization of techniques, being necessary to analyze all variables of the mechanization. As an example, exposure of workers to noise produced by agricultural tractors, which can be harmful to your health, to be occur a productive growth without affecting the minimum conditions imposed by Brazilian law. Excessive noise is a factor that affects the operators. This study aims at evaluating the levels and vibration and noise emitted by agricultural tractors with different powers, comparing the results with existing regulations in Brazil. The tractors studied were: Tractor A (engine power of 86 cv at 2200 rpm, manufactured in the year 2005, 4050,5 hours worked), Tractor B (engine power of 120 cv at 2200 rpm, manufactured in the year 2005, 3800,0 hours worked), Tractor C (engine power of 173 cv at 2200 rpm, manufactured in the year 1997, 7472, 9 hours worked), and Tractor D (engine power of 110 cv at 2200 rpm manufactured in the year 2011, 907 hours worked), crowded in Campus Hall Administrative USP Pirassununga.

Keywords noise, vibration, level.

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Effect of salicylic acid on germination of Ocimum gratissimum seeds induced into dormancy by chlormequat

Abstract The present work is to study the influence of salicylic acid in concentrations ranging from 0 to 1 mM on the germination of seeds of Ocimum gratissimum. This work is performed on non-dormant seeds and seeds induced into dormancy by chlormequat at a concentration of 550 mg / L. The study shows that salicylic seems to play an important role in acid stimulation of germination of non-dormant seeds that role varies with the concentration of salicylic acid: low concentrations lead to a small inhibition of germination whereas higher concentrations (greater than 0.5 mM) lead to stimulation of the germination. Furthermore, we found that the SA causes a dormancy dormant seeds. This dormancy is partial and slow at low concentrations (0.05 and 0.25 mM) and becomes complete when the concentration of SA increases. In this case, dormancy is very fast since the germination rate becomes important from the 3rd day.

Keywords chlormequat, dormancy, Ocimum gratissimum, salicylic acid.

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Engineering Journal: August Issue 2017

Performance Analysis of Regular and Irregular Structure Under Seismic Effect for RCC and Steel Composite Column Using Response Spectrum Ab...