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Optimal Power Flow Analysis of IEEE-30 bus System using Soft Computing Techniques

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Abstract— This paper is focused at providing a solution to optimal power flow problem in power systems by using soft computing approaches. The proposed approach finds the optimal setting of OPF control variables which include generator active output, generator bus voltages, transformer tap-setting and shunt devices with the objective function of minimizing the fuel cost. Soft computing optimization methods have been implemented based on genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization. The proposed soft computing techniques are modelled to be flexible for implementation to any power systems with the given system line, bus data, generator fuel cost parameter and forecasted load demand. Proposed soft computing optimization techniques have been analyzed and tested on the standard benchmark IEEE 30-bus system. Results obtained after applying both optimization techniques on American Electric IEEE 30-bus system with the same control variable maximum & minimum limits and system …

Sorption behaviour of maneb in the agriculture soils and its correlation with soil properties

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Abstract— Maneb is a broad spectrum fungicide, often reported as a carcinogenic, teratogenic and neurodegenerative agent. Thus, the occurrence of maneb at non-targeted sites is a cause of concern. The present study investigates adsorption–desorption behaviour of maneb in the agricultural soils to know its fate, mobility and availability in the soil. The sorption study was carried out by batch equilibration procedure. Maneb adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm and was accompanied by increase in manganese content of the soil. Maximum adsorption was observed in soil having the highest clay content. High maneb retention was observed in presence of soils modified with organic matter. The results of this study indicate that the clay and organic matter content of soil have significant influence on sorption behaviour of maneb. Amending soil with organic matter can reduce maneb pollution at non-targeted sites.Keywords—Fungicide, Parkinson disease, Manganese, Organic matter Click here to Downl…

Flow Injection Analysis of Indigo Carmine Using Green Coconut (Cocos Nucifera L.) Fiber as a Bioadsorbent

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Abstract— This paper deals with a procedure for preconcentration and determination of indigo carmine in textile industrial effluent. The product of Indigo blue sulphonation, 5,5´-disulfonic indigotin (5,5´-DI) aqueous solution was run through a mini-column packed with green coconut fiber (Cocos Nucifera L.) in a flow injection system. The 5,5´-DI was preconcentrated on the sorbent at pH 2 and sample flow rate 3.9 mL min-1 and eluted by HCl 0.1 mol L-1 to be detected by UV-vis spectrophotometry at 612 nm. An increase of 18.7% in the indigo recovery was observed with fiber washed with albumin and 11.7% in fiber washed with NaOH. A linear response was observed within the range 0.157 to 75.2 µmol L-1, with detection limit, coefficient of variation and sampling rate estimated as 0.0376 µmol L-1 (95% confidence level), 4.5% (n = 21) and 101 determinations per hour, respectively. The enrichment factor achieved was 1.64. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of 5,5…

Cellulases: suppliers of energy and basic compounds, so life

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Abstract— Cellulose is the main constituent of plants, serving to maintain their structure. Indeed, it is a major component of tough cell walls that surround plant cells, and is what makes plant stems, leaves, and branches so strong. Cellulose represents the most abundant carbohydrate substance in nature. It is a bio-polymer of glucose units related by β1, 4 glucosidic linkages. Cellulose degradation requires a multi-enzymatic system composed of three enzymes which are respectively: the endoglucanases, the cellobiohydrolases and finally the β-glucosidases. The chemical industry has come under increasing pressure to make chemical production more eco-friendly and independent to fossil resources. The biocatalysts are the best solution given by nature that can be used to improve some biotechnological applications. The use of this renewable material within the packaging industry has gained increasing interest in the last decades. In this research review, we report some peculiar information…

Assessment of dynamic traction therapy in lumbar disc herniation by clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes

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Abstract—Introduction: “Dynamic traction therapy” (DTT) is a new standardized conservative treatment option in lumbar disc herniation. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of DTT in lumbar disc herniation, by correlating both clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) outcomes.Materials and methods: In a total of 27 patients (mean age 50.5±9.1), who underwent standardized DTT, MRI was performed before and after therapy and evaluated by two independent radiologists individually and blindly; both grading intervertebral discs according to Pfirrmann classification in terms of degeneration, morphology, localization and nerve root affectation. The effect of standardized DTT on painful herniated discs was correlated with numerical pain rating (NPR) scale from 0 to 10 and clinical outcome.Results: Significant MRI changes were found in images after therapy compared to before therapy regarding morphology and nerve root affectation (p< 0.05), but disc degeneration grading sh…

Dynamic analyses of a flat plate and a beam subjected to a moving load

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Abstract— The objective of this paper is to investigate the dynamic characteristics of a flat plate and a beam subjected to a moving load with the effects of inertia force, Coriolis force and centrifugal force considered. To this end, the theory of moving mass element for plate and that for beam are presented, where the property matrices of the last elements are derived based on the superposition principle and the definition of shape functions. It is found that the order of the property matrices of the moving mass element for plate is , while that for beam is . Combination of the property matrices of the moving mass element and the overall property matrices of the plate (or beam) itself gives the overall property matrices of the entire structural system. Because the property matrices of the moving mass element have close relationship with the instantaneous position of the moving load, they are time-variant and so are the overall property matrices of the entire structural system. For v…

Research the heat transfer simulation analysis of water heater pipeline flow channel system

Abstract— This study is research of gas water heater cycling system with piping the heat transfer simulation analysis of water heater pipeline flow channel system the mold flow software of numerical calculation is FLUENT6.2 the geometric shape and computational grid for quarter bend, When the fluid passes through the shape changed flow field, under the effect of pressure distribution and geometric shape change of the flow field, there will be a recirculation zone. In the flow field of a quarter bend, To understand the structure of the flow field and flow field of temperature a analysis.Keywords—Gas Water Heater Cycling System, Quarter Bend, Flow Field, Numerical Calculation. Click here to Download Full PaperAD Publications is a rapidly growing academic publisher in the fields of Engineering, Medical-Health, Environmental Science and Agriculture Research. AD Publications is a registered organization broad-based open access and publishes most exciting researches with respect to the subj…

Power Efficient Digital LDO Regulator with Transient Response Boost Technique

Abstract— A digital low-dropout regulator (D-LDO) with reduced transient response time and overshoot/undershoot is proposed. The reduction of response time is achieved by using transient response boost technique. The loop gain is increased at the time of deviations exceeding the limit and the loop gain is returned after the output voltage is settled. On comparing LDO with and without transient response boost technique the settling time is reduced. The regulation is done in time mode with the help of high linear voltage to time convertor (VTC) and time to digital convertor. The time domain analog to digital conversion achieves high resolution at low power and small area. And multibit cyclic TDC for high level current efficiency is used.Key words—Current efficiency, cyclic TDC, digital low-dropout regulator (D-LDO), transient-response boost mode (TRBM), voltage-to-time converter (VTC).Click here to Download Full PaperAD Publications is a rapidly growing academic publisher in the fields …

Static and free vibration analyses of a bike using finite element method

Abstract— A successfully designed bike should possess safety and comfort for the riders. A safe bike means that its structure must be strong enough to prevent from damage due to various external loads and a comfortable bike means that its suspension systems must be excellent enough to reduce the transmissibility of disturbance coming from the uneven roads to the rider. In order to achieve the above goals, various methods have been presented; however, most of them assumed that each part of a bike is a “rigid body” except the helical (coil) springs. For the last reason, this paper tries to use more versatile finite element method (FEM) to perform the static and free vibration analysis of a bike. It is believed that a finite element model with all parts of a bike replaced by the “elastic” elements or lumped masses should be more realistic. In this paper, the entire bike structure is modeled by using three kinds of beam elements: pinned-pinned (P-P), pinned-clamped (P-C) and clamped-clamp…

Bacteria Associated with the Spoilage of Salad, their resistotyping and Potential Public Health Implications

Abstract— A study of bacteria associated with spoilage of various types of salads purchased from 3 different restaurants in Uyo metropolis was carried out between the months August and October, 2008 using standard microbiological procedures. The mean microbial load in vegetable salad was (3.5±0.25) x 107cfu/g with the sample from food affairs having the highest load (3.7 x 107cfu/g). The mean microbial load in garlic salad was (3.2±0.25) x 107cfu/g also with the sample from food affairs having the highest load (3.6 x 107cfu/g). However, fruit salad samples from Mr. Biggs had the highest microbial load (3.9 x 107cfu/g) out of the mean value of (3.6±0.25) x 107 cfu/g. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence of the isolates revealed that Staphylococcus aureus (33%), Micrococcus spp. (20%), Bacillus spp. (20%), Proteus spp. (13%), Pseudomonas spp. (13%) and Escherichia coli (7%) were the most encountered organisms in both spoiling and fresh (control) salad. The resistotyping of 20 % of te…

Research of Gas Water Heater Cycling System The laboratory Immersion Corrosion Test of Metal

Abstract— This study is based on the experimental method to investigate the gas water heater cycling piping system, In this experiment, the accelerated corrosion rate of laboratory immersion corrosion test of metal and electrochemical methods, three kinds of water quality to pure water, tap water, groundwater as a corrosion observed. Flow field experiments rectangular boxes, copper tube and acrylic sheet components, In order to visualize the flow, the shadowgraph technique is used. In order to understand the structure of the flow field and flow field of temperature and concentration measurement analysis and mass transfer rates.Keywords—Flow Field, Electrochemical, Immersion Corrosion Test, temperature, concentration.Click here to Download Full PaperAD Publications is a rapidly growing academic publisher in the fields of Engineering, Medical-Health, Environmental Science and Agriculture Research. AD Publications is a registered organization broad-based open access and publishes most ex…

Underwater Exploration Mission on Europa Jovian Moon

Abstract— NASA´s spacecraft, Galileo, discovered large amount of water on Europa, one of the Jupiter´s icy moons. Several works claim the existence of a liquid water ocean under the Europa icy crust. Europa is one of the most important regions in the Solar System and might reveal primitive forms of life in its oceans. At the present days, several technologies can be used to design the travel, prepare the landing and build the pressure hull of the submarine. A deep region of ice crust could be melted by an ice breaker, which would reach a liquid ocean and then a small submarine would be released. In this short communication, a preliminary design of both ice breaker and a small submarine for Europa's ocean exploration is considered. Additionally, communication between the submarine and a structure left over the icy crust will be discussed too. Results reveal that a small submarine with less than 80 cm and 2.4 m for diameter and beam, respectively, are required for moderate melting t…

Comparison of cn estimation approaches

Abstract— The Curve Number (CN) method used for estimating direct runoff depths from rainstorms (developed by NRCS in 1954) is based on a CN parameter (representing the hydrological properties of a catchment) and a λ parameter (representing the initial abstraction ratio Ia/S). In this paper, the CN parameter is determined for 10 small Slovak basins using the original SCS-CN method (CNtabulated) and empirically from rainfall-runoff events for a 13-year period using four different approaches (asymptotic fitting, arithmetic, median, and a method used by Hawkins et al. [9]) for both natural and ordered P-Q pairs (CNempirical). The CNempirical numbers were evaluated and consequently used to determine the direct runoff for both λ equal to 0.2 and 0.05. The results show differences among the selected approaches that indicate variances in the direct runoff computed. The large range of the empirical CN numbers indicates uncertainty. However, the NRCS does not define the uncertainty of the tabu…

Colossal and frequency stable permittivity of barium titanate nanoceramics derived from mechanical activation and SPS sintering

Abstract— Highly dense barium titanate nanoceramics have been successfully prepared via a mechanical activation synthesis method and Spark Plasma sintering. Attractive electrical properties have been evidenced in these materials: a colossal permittivity, (3.5. 105) and low loss (0.07) at room temperature and 1 kHz, that are stable over a wide frequency range (from 40 Hz to 40 kHz). Surprisingly, the ferroelectric transition is still observed, for the first time to our knowledge, in these colossal permittivity materials.Keywords—Barium titanate, ball milling, spark plasma sintering, nanoceramics, dielectric properties.Click here to Download Full PaperAD Publications is a rapidly growing academic publisher in the fields of Engineering, Medical-Health, Environmental Science and Agriculture Research. AD Publications is a registered organization broad-based open access and publishes most exciting researches with respect to the subjects of our journals. The Journals is being indexed and abs…

The Synthesis of Single Tetragonal Phase Zirconia by Sol-Gel Route

Abstract— Zirconia with tetragonal phase is a widely used functional material to toughen ceramics. At room temperature zirconia usually presents in the less stable form of monoclinic phase. In this paper, room temperature single tetragonal phase zirconia stabilized by yttria was successfully synthesized by a sol-gel route at a relative low temperature (≤1000oC). The calcination mechanism of zirconia was determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, which indicated that phase formation of zirconia started above 600oC. X-ray diffraction patterns showed stabilized with 3mol % yttria was insufficient to obtain fully single tetragonal phase zirconia. As the content of the stabilizer increased, single tetragonal phase zirconia was obtained as observed by Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction. With 4mol% yttria content, zirconia remains stable with the desired tetragonal phase at room temperature.Keywords—Zirconia, tetragonal phase, sol-gel, phase characteriz…

Calculating Areal Ranfall Using A More Efficient Idw Interpolation Algorithm

Abstract— The estimation of areal rainfall is an important part of solving various hydrological problems utilizing rainfall-runoff and other models. Traditionally used Thiessen polygons (TP) method proved to be inaccurate mainly in mountainous areas and in catchments with insufficient number of rainfall gauges. One of the alternative to this method is an inverse distance weighting (IDW) method giving better estimates of areal rainfall even on places with rugged orography. However, this and similar methods are far less efficient than the simple TP method restraining its use to tasks where computational efficiency is not important. In this study a new algorithm accelerating the traditional IDW method is proposed and applied to three mountainous catchments situated in the central part of Slovakia. The method is compared with traditional IDW and TP methods in terms of both computational efficiency and estimated values. The results showed that while the new method gives the same results as…

Three Dimensional Fluid Structure Interaction Modeling of Hemodynamics with Continuous Postures

Abstract— A sudden postural change may produce symptoms or even syncope mainly due to orthostatic hypotension. To date, most hemodynamic studies in postural change focus on the response of static and definite postures. To quantify cardiovascular hemodynamics characteristics during continuous posture, we developed a three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction mathematical model of hemodynamics with continuous posture. In this model, the rotating inertial forces were introduced. By the finite element method, the distribution of blood flow pressure (DBFP) in the inner carotid artery in ±90° postures was numerically simulated with rotation and gravity concerned or not. The simulations are as follows: (1) whether gravity was considered or not, the DBFP varied from two-dimensional axisymmetrical distribution without rotation to three-dimensional asymmetrical one with rotation considered, and extreme pressures occurred in the same positions in the two cases. (2) The effect intensity of rot…

Bacterial Isolates from Contact Lenses, Frames and Their Susceptibility to Disinfectants

Abstract— Bacteriological assessments of contact lenses and frames were determined using standard bacteriological methods and the susceptibility of the bacterial isolates to Clear Care Cleaning Disinfecting Solution (CCCDS), Eye-Look Optical Lens Cleaner (ELOC) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were assayed using disc diffusion technique. Bacterial isolates from the contact lenses and frames were: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Coagulase negative (CoN) Staphylococcus spp , Bacillus spp, Citrobacter freundii, Corynebacterium spp , Escherichia coli , Haemophilus influenzae, Micrococcus spp. and Aeromonas hydrophila . Only 33 (55.0 %) contact lenses and 41 (68.3 %) frames swabs showed positive growth and of the 41 (68.3 %) frames’ swabs with positive growth, 23 (38.3 %) showed growth of single bacterial isolate, 10 (16.7 %) showed growth of two bacterial isolates, while polybacterial growth was present in 7 (13.3 %). Only 25 (75.8 %) males’ and 1…

Preparation of Multiphase Poly(Styrene-co-Butyl acrylate)/Wax-Clay Nanocomposites via Miniemulsion Polymerization

Abstract— In the presence of different wax-clay nanocomposites concentrations, poly(styrene-co-butyl acrylate) P(S-co-BA) copolymers were prepared via free-radical random copolymerization of styrene and butyl acrylate in miniemulsion. Wax-clay nanocomposites were obtained through ultrasonic mixing at a temperature above the melting point of the wax at different clay loadings (1, 5, 7 and 10 wt%). The main objectives of this study were to obtain a good exfoliation of the clay platelets in the paraffin wax. The obtained wax-clay nanocomposites were then used as filler in the preparation of P(S-co-BA)/wax-clay nanocomposites via miniemulsion polymerization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the clay platelets were mostly exfoliated in the paraffin wax at low concentrations, and partially exfoliated at high concentrations. The particles morphology of the P(S-co-BA)/wax-clay nanocomposite latexes was mainly determined by TEM, and the wax-clay…

Effect of establishment methods and weed-control measures on Broad leaf weeds, yield attributes and harvest index of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Abstract— A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2013-2014 at Pantnagar, District, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) to assess the effect of weed-control measures on Broad leaf weeds, nutrient uptake, yield attributes and harvest index under different establishment methods. ZTW recorded significantly higher total dry matter of BLWs over CTW and RTW at 60, 90 DAS and at maturity stage. Clodinafop-propargyl @ 60 g/ha recorded the maximum dry matter which was significantly higher over weedy and two hand weedings at 90 DAS and at maturity stage.. Number of grains per spike exhibited non-significant variation owing to establishment methods. Ready mix of clodinafop-propargyl + MSM @ 64 g/ha and clodinafop-propargyl @ 60 g/ha produced maximum number of grains per spike. Highest harvest index value was obtained under CTW which was at par with ZTW.The highest harvest index value was obtained with crop given clodinafop-propargyl @ 60 g/ha.Keywords—zero tillage, conventional tillag…

On the Rational Dynamic Equation on Discrete Time Scales

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Abstract— In this paper, we study the global stability, periodicity character and some other properties of solutions of the rational dynamic equation on discrete time scales Keywords—Rational dynamic equation, Time scales, Equilibrium point, Global attractor, Periodicity, Boundedness, Invariant interval.Click here to Download Full Paper

Seismic Evaluation and Comparision of Plan Irregular and Plan Irregular Soft Storey Building with Cross Bracing and Shear Wall System

Yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg.) oil refining extracted by mechanical pressing